Diodes and Applications Types of DiodesDiode Type Symbol DescriptionZener Diode Designed for limiting voltage across terminals in reverse biasLight Emitting Diode A diode that emits light when there is forward currentPhotodiode A diode in which  the reverse current varies directly with the amount of lightLaser Diode Free electrons and holes available simultaneously in the region.Schottky Diode also known as hot-carrier diode, is a semiconductor diode formed by the junction of a semiconductor with a metal. It has a low forward voltage drop and a very fast switching action.PIN Diode a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor regionStep-Recovery Diode is a semiconductor junction diode having the ability to generate extremely short pulsesTunnel Diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region, made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.Current Regulator Diode an electronic device that limits current to a maximum specified value for the deviceVaractor Diode a diode that has a variable capacitance which is a function of the voltage that is impressed on its terminalsVacuum Diode is the simplest form of vacuum tube. It consists of two electrodes, a cathode, and an anode or plate. Half-Wave Rectifier Peak Value of output:Vpout=Vpsec-0.7Average Value of output:Vavg=Vpout/?Diode peak inverse voltage:PIV=VpoutCenter-Tapped Full-wave Rectifier Peak Value of output:Vpout=Vpsec/2-0.7vAverage Value of output:Vavg=2Vpout/?Diode peak inverse voltage:PIV=2Vpout+0.7vFull Bridge Rectifier Peak Value of output:Vpout=Vpsec/2-1.4vAverage Value of output:Vavg=2Vpout/?Diode peak inverse voltage:PIV=2Vpout+0.7v The single diode is in reverse bias in the positive output of the transformer. The voltage that passes through it becomes the unregulated DC Voltage. The negative output voltage is in reverse bias that’s why it blocks the AC voltage. The output waveform becomes the half-wave In this scenario there are two diodes in both positive and negative outputs of the transformer. Both the negative and positive output the diode is in reverse bias therefore the voltage passes through it becomes the DC unregulated voltage the wave becomes Full-Waveforms The Full bridge rectifier, has four diodes and the voltage inputs in both positive and negative becomes the unregulated DC Voltage and the full-wave waveforms becomes finer and close to the rectangular DC Voltage waveform.Applications of Diodes Diode Limiters – also called the diode clipper circuit, this limits the positive part of the input voltage.  Under the diode limiter there is called Biased Limiter. Using a diode depending on the biasing if it’s a positive or negative limiter. This avoids the damaging of circuits because of the input levels. Diode Clampers-this is also known as DC Restorers. The clamper often used in television receivers as a dc restorer because the video signal normally processed through capacitively coupled amplifiers that eliminates the DC Components Voltage Doubler – is known also as voltage multiplier with a multiplication factor of two. There are two known voltage doubler applications the half-wave doubler and the full-wave doubler. Voltage Tripler – this is another circuit coming from the voltage doubler and just add another diode-capacitor section. Voltage Quadupler – this is another circuit coming from the voltage doubler just add two diode-capacitor section.Application of Schottky Diode Radio frequency Rectifier in switch mode power suppliesApplication of Zener Diode Regulator for small circuitsApplication of Light Emitting Diode Light source Indicator lightApplication of Photo Diode Converts light into electrical currentApplication of PIN Diode Can be used in low and high frequency radios Switch for RF