A comparison between Platonic Communism and Modern Communism reveals more dissimilarities than similarities.
1. Plato’s communism is the outcome of conditions of Athens in the 4th century B.C. But, Modern communism is the result of the most complex conditions arising due to the industrial revolution in the Nineteenth Century Europe.
2. Plato’s communism does not want total transformation of society. The producing class remains intact. It is applied only to the Guardian class.
But, Marxist communism is mainly concerned with alteration of economic structure of the society. It aims at abolition of private ownership of the means of production. All economic resources are centralised by the machinery of communist party.
This led Barker to remark that “Plato’s communism was aristocratic; it is a way of surrender; and it is a surrender imposed on the best. It exists for the sake of the whole society, but not for the whole society.”
3. While Plato’s communism concerned prohibition of things that enabled Guardians to discharge their function, modern communism is concerned with common ownership of the means of production.
4. Plato’s scheme of communism covered both; communism of property as well as wives. On the contrary, modern communism is concerned only with means of production.
5. Plato’s communism aimed at making the Greek city state, a self sufficient properly governed unit. But, modern communism espoused a global vision to bring about a world revolution to usher in a communist society.
6. While Plato’s communism was aristocratic; modern one is ‘Proletarian’.
7. Plato’s communism had high degree of abstraction with great philosophical rigor. Modern communism is more realistic combined with scientific rigor.