1.

Plant formation: When vegetation reaches the highest development, becoming stable for more or less definite period, under existing climate, it is called plant formation. Dominant members of a plant formation have similar growth forms. In a deciduous forest formation, all dominant species are broad- leaved trees. Principal formations of world are rain forests, deciduous forests coniferous forests, grasslands, deserts and mangroves.

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2. Associations:

Community with two or more dominant species is known as association.

Developmental or serial communities of association are known as associes. Two sub-divisions of association are (a) Fasciation: Local variants of association, which are related within a general climate develop small difference in moisture relations and temperature. Serai communities are accordingly known as fades. (b) Lociation: An association having different types of some main sub-dominant and chief secondary species. Serai communities are known as locies.

3. Consociation:

Community with a single dominant species is known as consociation. In one association, many consociations may be present.

Serai communities of a climax consociation are known as consocies.

4. Society:

A community characterized by one or more sub-dominant species. Serai communities are known as socies.

Societies are of two types: (a) Aspect society: It is found in places with marked seasonal variations, where different species appear in different periods of their vegetative growth and flowering. (b) Layer society: Under influence of dominant species, trees of forest formation develop one or more layers of shrubs, followed by layers of herbaceous communities. A ground community of society of mosses, a lichen, etc., in forest is also present.