CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION 1.
1.Background to thestudy The role of emotions in the workplace has stirred agreat deal of interest since the book TheManaged Heart (Hochschild, 1983) was published. Emotional labour came intoexistence as a new term referring to the management of emotions to fulfill orincrease the efficiency by Hochschild. With this regard, the term has begun toappeal to a number of researchers, with an increasing rate (Abraham, 1999; Cote& Morgan, 2002). Emotionallabour was put forward as a term, by Hochshild, 2003, to define the burden orwork load that service workers, facing human interaction frequently, aresubject to. Such burden stems from the fact that these workers are usuallysupposed to display different emotions than they really feel. Take a flightattendant, for example, who has to keep smiling all day long no matter howdepressed or sad he/she feels, during her/his work hours, which in returnbrings some important effects in job satisfaction, desire to leave the job, andburnout level. Emotionallabour reveals itself in two ways, as Hochshild points out; surface acting anddeep acting.
Surface acting is the way service workers or providers try tochange their outward appearances and control the body language in a way thatthe organization asks for. As for theother way, deep acting, it is a way of displaying feelings that areinternalized by the worker and this is much deeper than body language oroutward appearance. Hocshild also mentioned aboutthe transition that working life has gone thorough so far. He emphasized theneed for physical work during the industrial age and how human work force wasused like a machine, but not treated as a human being. Following this age,service works became dominant factor in work force, and the proportion of physicalworks in the labour diminished dramatically. This time, the pressure on serviceworkers was rather emotional than physical.
Based on different perspectives, it can also beclassified in several ways. Morris and Feldman (1996) put it into fourdimensions; frequency, duration, and intensity of displaying the behaviour oremotion along with rules of behaviours. On the otherhand, Diefendorff, Croyle, & Gosserand (2005) put forward a studysuggesting another dimension of emotional labour which can supplement the twoaforementioned dimensions, naturally-felt emotions, which, contrary to surfaceacting and deep acting, does not convey any obligation to display certain behaviours(Basim& Begenirbas, 2012).In this case, the emotions are internalized so that employee never feels theneed to act. In the case of surface acting, the emotions are not internalized;they are seen just obligatory and far from being the employee’s real feeling,whereas with regard to deep acting, the emotions are more internalized, but notmore than naturally-felt emotions, of course. As Van Gelderen, Konijn, and Bakker (2011) points out,emotional labour is directly related to human service professions, whereinfrequent contact between service provider and recipient is vital element of thework. In accordance with that view, Schaufeli and Enzmann (1998, p. 124) putsforward the idea that emotional labour is crucial to grasp the meaning ofburnout as emotional labour deals with an essential aspect of service providerand recipient.
Teaching isalso a profession that requires a great deal of emotional labour, which causesits professionals, teachers, to manage and manipulate their emotions whilecontacting with their students or parents. As an important part of theirprofession, teachers have to control their emotions and display emotions throughwhich their leaners could be motivated or encouraged to the subject of theclass (Hochschild, 1983). The appropriate emotionsdisplayed by the teachers in or outside the class vary from satisfaction,affection, disappointment, and anger to sympathy and warmth, which constitutesmost of the emotional labour teachers go through. When it comes to burnout, with a broader definition, itcan be described as the conflicts arising between caregivers’ relationshipswith their recipients and limitations in the organizational level, which can beregarded as a problem belonging to the group of human service providers such associal workers, nurses, mental health workers, and teachers. Burnout maymanifest itself in three ways; a) emotional exhaustion, which is loss of energyor wearing out, b) depersonalization, meaning irritability, loss of idealism,and negative attitudes of service providers to the service receivers, and c) reducedpersonal accomplishment, a component which makes itself felt as loss inself-esteem and low morale as well as feeling incompetent to cope with demands.Asa profession that requires a lot of human interaction, teaching also leads to agreat deal of burnout among its service providers, teachers. The stress leading to burnout among teachersmostly come from the fact that they feel not only responsible towards theirstudents and the parents but also the school administration, and the needs orcharacteristics of students change so rapidly that teachers find themselves ina position where they need to renew themselves as frequently as possible, whichincreases the stress on teachers (Smylie, 1999).