Cancer has always been a constantthought in the back of a scientist, doctor, engineer, and regular day-to-daycitizen’s mind.

That being said, there are many ways that cancer is trying tobe cured – starting with early detection and proper ways to handle a type ofdisease this large. As more ways of detection are being created, moreengineering problems continue to arise including: cost, availability, abilityto recreate the procedure, turnaround time, difficulty of the actual procedure,invasiveness, and so much more. Specifically, the Idylla system, the IntegratedComprehensive Droplet Digital Detection, and liquid biopsy options are lookingat a way to combat these problems. Another possible way to combat cancer – lungcancer in this case – is to use blood-based biomarkers (Mamdani,Ahmed, Armstrong, Mok, & Jalal, 2017). Since lung cancer has expanded, strategiesto attack this fatal condition have become increasingly more important. Althoughbiomarkers have not been completely successful yet due to its lack of availabletissue, it still remains a reasonable possibility for cancer detection. Cancerdetection is currently being created and revised as we speak, thus making itone of the more interesting areas to research! Utilizing the qPCR-based Idyllasystem to Detect EGFT Mutations for Lung Cancer            After reading this scientificjournal, it has become apparent that there needs to be more research in theadvantages and disadvantages of this Idylla system to see if it is possible tofix the current engineering problems (Ilieet al.

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, 2017). Currently, the goal of the Idylla system is todetect already known mutations in 18 patients to see if it can create a morereliable and fast acting lung cancer test.             Although the Idylla system hasmultiple advantages, there are also a multitude of problems that could be fixedto make the system work better. These changes include: making a way to utilizelarger tissue samples with it still continuing to be noninvasive, making theturnaround time faster – thus, decreasing competition between laboratories andinstitutions, decreasing the cost, making it more user-friendly and notrequiring technical nor medical expertise, and dealing with the economic issuesof reimbursement of the tests. As I stated earlier, there are a multitude ofproblems but the most crucial issues are invasiveness, turnaround time, and theprice. These are all issues because it really limits the patients that canutilize this new system because it may take too long or be too expensive. TheIdylla system has a lot of positive feedback so far and fixing these issuescould revolutionize lung cancer detection.

            Even though this article is veryrecent, researchers are already developing ways around these problems so thatthe Idylla system can become more public. Possible solutions include designingnew technologies to target the tumor zones better that are also in closerproximity to each other to create better turnaround time (less than threehours!). Current testing will expand into pathology labs to make them morereliable and fast acting.  Using the Integrated ComprehensiveDroplet Digital Detection tool to detect Sepsis            Although sepsis is not a type ofcancer, it can be directly linked to cancer and can cause serious fatalillnesses, thus creating an extremely high mortality due to the inability ofdetection (Kanget al., 2014). Therefore, the need is to find a way to quicklydetect and identify a blood stream infection caused by bacteria – in the earlystages of infection.

            Since sepsis is such a fatal diseasealong with cancer, it requires adequate time and care, but if there are medicalchallenges in the way – this can cause a multitude of issues. These problemsinclude high mortality, inadequate treatment that later causes antibiotic resistance,too long of a turnaround time, poor specificity, and a high background signalas well. All of these engineering problems limit the detection of blood streaminfections, which therefore limits the detection of cancer and increasesmortality. Utilizing the Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detectiontool (IC3D) could reduce the amount of medical challenges and increasewidespread use of the IC3D.            Cancer detection should be at thetop of the radar to improve upon; therefore, explaining why researchers aretrying to create a system to specifically detect bacteria from scarce amountsof diluted blood.

The goal of this is to make it one-step, timely, andculture-free. This would allow for more absolute data with a larger range ofconcentrations – leading to more advanced technologies to thus further improvecancer detection in the long run. Detection Challenges with LungCancer Circulating Tumor Cells            Along with many new possible cancertreatments, liquid biopsy is becoming a more appealing option due to its noninvasiveand ease of procedure (Ilieet al., 2014). That being said though, there still needs to beadoption of using the liquid biopsy as a diagnostic technique in cell lungcancer. Liquid biopsy needs to be clarified, controlled, more inexpensive, andneeds to be focused on more in order to spread its capabilities.            The issue with spreading the liquidbiopsy is that there are a multitude of ways to do a liquid biopsy – so thereneeds to be research on which is the best method to do the procedure, there arealso an array of biomarkers, it is difficult to control the procedure in the pre-analyticalphase, it costs too much, and yet again, the turnaround time takes too long.

Ifthese engineering problems got fixed then the detection of lung cancer could doa full 360° change. Liquidbiopsies are a great approach in theory, but it needs to be tested more for itto possibly surface into daily practices. This article goes very in depth withthe liquid biopsies advantages and disadvantages, showing that there isinterest in the field – research just has to get done.            At the heart of the issue, the mainsolution is to just do more studies so that the liquid biopsy can have itsultimate optimization. Not only does it need to continue to go through the analyticalphase, but it also has to go through many tests to be commercialized. There isa large gap currently between attraction in the media and the actualapplication to hospitals – so therefore, cost, ability to recreate, andusefulness needs to be researched!             When identifying three differentcancer detection methods and their corresponding problems, it became apparent thatmany of the problems are very repetitive and that there should be a strongerfocus on those aspects and how to fix them. Using PubMed, information waspresented about the Idylla system to detect a specific EGFT mutation for lungcancer (Ilieet al., 2017), the Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection toolto detect early stages of sepsis and cancer (Kanget al.

, 2014), the liquid biopsies that are being researched toattack lung cancer tumor cells (Ilieet al., 2014), and blood-based biomarkers for the combat of lungcancer (Mamdaniet al., 2017). Sincethese articles need to be trustworthy and reliable, they had to bepeer-reviewed – to check this required some light research: beginning withfinding the main article’s company and finding their sites information andpolicy on peer-reviewing, luckily all of my articles were peer-reviewed,revealing that they are more reliable. That being said, there are lots of othersources that are not peer-reviewed but are still reliable including: governmentsites, in-person interviews and lectures, or other trustworthy organizations.

These specifically are reliable due to the fact that they tend to be first-handinformation, but it is normally appropriate to get information from these sitesfor more knowledge on the topic rather than solid concrete data like the onespresented above.Aftercompleting the entire assignment, the best solution seems to be involved with thefinal article looked at – liquid biopsies in lung cancer, due to the fact thatthey did not specifically say that they plan to do this, this, and this. They keptit broad and mentioned that not all research is successful, so the plan is tojust continue to do more studies until there is something useful. (Ilieet al., 2014). Since this was published in 2014, if there was a follow-uparticle, it is most likely that there has already been successful research and thatthey have continued to move forward. Research usually leads to more research,so the fact that they embraced this seems to be the most realistic solution!  Bibliography:Ilie,M., Butori, C.

, Lassalle, S., Heeke, S., Piton, N., Sabourin, J.

C., et al.(2017).

Optimization of EGFR mutation detection by the fully-automatedqPCR-based Idylla system on tumor tissue from patients with non-small cell lungcancer. Oncotarget, 8(61),103055-103062.Ilie, M., Hofman,V., Long, E., Bordone, O.

, Selva, E., Washetine, K., et al. (2014).

Currentchallenges for detection of circulating tumor cells and cell-free circulatingnucleic acids, and their characterization in non-small cell lung carcinomapatients. What is the best blood substrate for personalized medicine? Ann Transl Med, 2(11), 107.Kang, D. K., Ali,M.

M., Zhang, K., Huang, S. S., Peterson, E., Digman, M. A.

, et al. (2014).Rapid detection of single bacteria in unprocessed blood using IntegratedComprehensive Droplet Digital Detection.

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I. (2017). Blood-based tumorbiomarkers in lung cancer for detection and treatment. Transl Lung Cancer Res, 6(6), 648-660.