Calcium Carbonate is CaCO3. Calcium Carbonate is a very abrasive mineral used in toothpaste. Since Calcium Carbonate is so abrasive, it gives the toothpaste the power to clean your teeth properly. It comes from two types of rocks, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Calcium Carbonate in its natural state is marble,chalk,or limestone. Its pure mineral is colorless or white, but it can be any color nowadays because of alterations. You may not realize it, you have calcium carbonate in things you use in your daily life like in paper,paint,plastic,bathroom cleaner, and shoe polish. You can also find calcium carbonate in some foods for the source of calcium. It is a mineral which would be hard to live without.Sodium Fluoride is Na2CO2.It is also the most known and popular active ingredient found in toothpaste. It is very surprising that we use it in our teeth and it is also one of the main ingredients in rat poison. Sodium fluoride comes from the mineral fluorite. Fluoride is and extremely soft mineral. Fluorite is commonly thought of as the most colorful mineral in the world , but just like the last one. Fluorite in its pure state has no color, but us humans have made genetic alterations to make it prettier and colorful.Its benefit to toothpaste is that fluoride is an anti-cavity. Fluoride also coats and strengthens your teeth’s enamel. This is why fluoride is so important in toothpaste.Fluoride Ion is also known as F-. It is a compound made of phosphate and calcium. That compound makes up an enamel in the form of hydroxyapatite , which helps your teeth attack acids. Acids are made from sugar and quickly multiply. Brushing your teeth takes the bacteria away,but does not to anything about the never ending damage to your enamel from all of the acids. Thankfully, saliva puts the minerals back into your enamel for you, but when more minerals are lost, then your saliva can fix. Fluoride Ion comes into action. Fluoride Ion comes and interacts with hydroxyapatite. When they come together, they form an extremely strong compound which helps your enamel, be less prone to acid attacks. Fluoride Ion can help remineralize your severely damage enamel, but can not help fix an already formed cavity. Scientists are still doing research on this, but science is showing that fluoride ion may help prevent large amounts of bacteria growth on teeth and also the amount of acid your teeth are able to create. While, you spit out the toothpaste and rinse your mouth after you brush your teeth,you still have enough fluoride in your saliva and on your teeth to protect your mouth for some time after you brush your teeth.Stannous Fluoride is SNF2. Stannous Fluoride is also referred to Tin(ll) fluoride. It is a mineral that helps a lot. Just like Fluoride Ion, Tin(ll) fluoride helps protect your teeth against acids that your body makes regularly. Stannous Fluoride also helps your teeth become more resistant to tooth decay later in life.It also helps remove a lot of dangerous plague. To top that, just like the sodium fluoride , stannous fluoride helps as an anti-cavity worker. Stannous Fluoride is also a gingivitis protector.If you look in the big picture, stannous fluoride is like fluoride ion and sodium fluoride combined. Two in One! Since it has so many benefits toothpastes containing Stannous Fluoride are usually more expensive.Sodium Hexametaphosphate is (NaPO3)6. Sodium Hexametaphosphate is mixture of different polymeric metaphosphates.  Sodium Hexametaphosphate is used in toothpastes for two reasons. The first one is  that Sodium Hexametaphosphate removes stains from your teeth or in other words is a tooth whitener. The second reason is that Sodium Hexametaphosphate is a tartar fighting mineral or in other word plague. Plague is a bacteria filled sticky film on top of your teeth. There are about 3 million cases of this alone in the USA. Potassium nitrate is KNO3 and a  mineral that is only put in sensitive teeth toothpaste, so what the potassium nitrate does is that it decreases tooth sensitivity. Potassium Nitrate does his by entering the dental tubules. Then making its way into the nerves of the dental pulp, which results in people who have sensitive teeth, to not have toothaches every time, they brush their teeth.Strontium Acetate/Chloride  is C4H6O4Sr/?Cl2Sr. These two chemical compounds are calcium based. They replace the lost calcium in your teeth and try to barricade the exposed tubules in your dentinal tissue. This helps in trying to prevent the motion of fluids in your tubules. This helps the response to your sensitivity stimulus, which could then cause toothaches.Microorganisms are also called microbes.  Microbes are one millionth of a micrometer. Microbes are one tenth of a human cell. Imagine that, since microbes are so tiny, you can’t see them with your bare eyes, you will require a microscope to see one. Microbes are the most unique and diverse organisms in existence on Earth. Microbes are made up of bacteria.Some common types of microbes are fungi, algae, amoeba, etc. Microbes are most likely always going to be single celled, while there are a few exceptions. The Earth is filled with microbes. You find microbes everywhere, from Mount Everest to the Mariana Trench. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Bacteria have no recognisable nucleus.Bacteria also lack almost all of the internal structures found in the eukaryotes, more complex cells. Most biologists classify bacteria as one of three territories of living organisms. The other 2 are Archaeas and Eukaryas. Archaeas are made up of prokaryotic organisms, that have different molecular foundations than bacteria. Eukaryas are everything else like plants. There is a ton of bacteria everywhere, for example on teaspoon or 5 millimeters of fertile soil can be filled up with around 500 million unique bacteria.Bacteria comes in all shapes and sizes. Bacteria like microbes are measured in micrometers. 1,000 micrometers is one millimeter and 25,000 micrometers is one inch. Bacteria can be anywhere from ½ a micrometer to 750 micrometers. Bacteria absorb nutrients and discharge toxic wastes through their walls which are made of cells. They release enzymes that break down food in their environment into a soluble form so that it can go through the wall and inside the cytoplasm. Anaerobes can not tolerate oxgyen and will get killed off, if exposed to some. While aerobes need oxygen to live. These are 2 of the many bacterial groups. Bacteria move in 2 ways. The first way is that they move through liquid. The second way is that they are carried on animals, insects, etc or drift along the air. Some types of bacteria can form structures named endospores or spores. The spore is a resting stage that enables the organism to adapt to harmful conditions. When conditions improve, the spores transform into active bacteria. Some spores can withstand extremely harsh conditions like boiling water, extreme cold, and exposure to many chemical components.All most all bacteria reproduce asexually.By dividing in two, this is  a process called binary fission. The two new cells grow and then divide to form two new cells, resulting in a total of four cells with identical DNA from a single parent cell. Some bacteria divides only every 16 hours or more. In the fastest growing bacteria, however, fission may occur as often as every 15 minutes. This is how bacteria reproduces so fast. 4th december 20 minutesAntonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch, born on 24 October 1632. He was a businessman and even had his own draper business. He was always fond of science, but never really learned it. He was self-taught.He is known as the father of microbiology. He is the one who discovered bacteria and improved the microscope. Antonie wanted to see the quality of a thread butter,than using less than the microscope lenses available. He placed the middle of a small rod composed of soda lime glass in a scorching hot flame. He then pulled the hot part of the rod apart to create two very long thin pieces of glass. He then put one of the ends back in the flame, so he could create an extremely small high-quality magnifier. The shape was a sphere. Those spheres, later become the lenses of a microscope. He met with tons of great and  famous individuals on his journey. One cool fact about him is that he never revealed or showed the public his microscope lenses because in fear, they would be able to figure out how to make it. He also feared that if he revealed his secret, and people would forget him in the science world. He has made over 500 lenses. Some of the lenses can even magnify up to 500* the amount of the object.He first discovered the protozoa, which are single celled organisms. Antonie called the protozoa a animalcules. Antoni did all of this with not having much education and no scientific background. Antonie also improved the microscope, which helped in seeing these microorganisms. 8 DecemberAgar Agar can be found as a powder or a pre-made jelly. In this experiment we will use agar agar powder. To make the agar agar powder into a gel like substance, you will have to mix it with water and let it set. Agar Agar is made from polysaccharide agarose. Polysaccharide agarose is a formation of certain algae cell walls. The algae you extract agar agar from is in a group called agarophytes and belong to the Rhodophyta (red algae) phylum.Agar Agar is usually gotten from seaweed. Agar Agar is used to see bacterial growth of things.5 JanHistory of Toothpaste- Way before toothbrushes were invented, toothpaste was invented. Ancient Egyptians used a tooth cleaning paste around 5000 BC. Ancient Greeks and Romans also used paste to clean their teeth as records show. But at the end, the first known people to use toothpaste where ancient Indians and Chinese approximately in 500 BC. We believe toothpastes were invented back then to treat issues like white teeth and stinky breath. You may wonder how they made the toothpaste. Well, everyone made it their own way. Ancient Egyptians used ashes of ox hooves ,burnt eggshells, and pumice to create the paste. The Ancient Romans and Greeks used crushed bones and oyster shells on the other hand. The Romans and Greeks used those ingredients because they were very abrasive.  They also added flavoring tree bark and charcoal. The Indians and Chinese were by far the closest to the toothpaste we have today. They used herbs and spices like ginseng, mint, and salt. Later in the 1800´s , people in England used soap,chalk,and charcoal to make toothpaste. Before 1850, toothpastes were usually powders. In 1850, a new brand called, ¨Creme Dentifrice¨ came out. It was a Colgate product. Colgate started mass producing the toothpaste in jars in 1890Egyptians are believed to have started using a paste to clean their teeth around 5000BC, before toothbrushes were invented. Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have used toothpastes, and people in China and India first used toothpaste around 500BC.Ancient toothpastes were used to treat some of the same concerns that we have today – keeping teeth and gums clean, whitening teeth and freshening breath. The ingredients of ancient toothpastes were however very different and varied. Ingredients used included a powder of ox hooves’ ashes and burnt eggshells, that was combined with pumice. The Greeks and Romans favored more abrasiveness and their toothpaste ingredients included crushed bones and oyster shells. The Romans added more flavoring to help with bad breath, as well as powdered charcoal and bark. The Chinese used a wide variety of substances in toothpastes over time that have included ginseng, herbal mints and salt.The development of toothpastes in more modern times started in the 1800s. Early versions contained soap and in the 1850s chalk was included. Betel nut was included in toothpaste in England in the 1800s, and in the 1860s a home encyclopedia described a home-made toothpaste that used ground charcoal.Prior to the 1850s, ‘toothpastes’ were usually powders. During the 1850s, a new toothpaste in a jar called a Crème Dentifrice was developed and in 1873 Colgate started the mass production of  toothpaste in jars. Colgate introduced its toothpaste in a tube similar to modern-day toothpaste tubes in the 1890s.Until after 1945, toothpastes contained soap. After that time, soap was replaced by other ingredients to make the paste into a smooth paste or emulsion – such as sodium lauryl sulphate, a common ingredient in present-day toothpaste.In the second half of the twentieth century modern toothpastes were developed to help prevent or treat specific diseases and conditions such as tooth sensitivity. Fluoride toothpastes to help prevent decay were introduced in 1914. Toothpastes with very low abrasiveness were also developed and helped prevent the problems caused by overzealous brushing.The most recent advances in toothpastes have included the development of whitening toothpastes,   and toothpaste containing Triclosan which provides extra protection against caries, gum disease, plaque, calculus and bad breath.Toothpastes today typically contain fluoride, coloring, flavoring, sweetener, as well as ingredients that make the toothpaste a smooth paste, foam and stay moist. Individual toothpastes also may contain special ingredients, such as triclosan in Colgate Total. Toothpaste in tubes is used throughout the world and has been a very successful invention.