Background information Deforestationis when forest land is cleared by humans for their own purposes which involves:timber production, mining, urban development and farming. Deforestation begannearly 8000 years ago when humans began to cut down forests for hunting of wildanimals. Then, deforestation increased even more when land was required foragriculture.
Other reasons for deforestation include tress as building materialand land for building houses. Between2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres of forests from all aroundthe world were cleared. Due todeforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres are left. However, inthe beginning the Earth was covered with 16 million square kilometres offorests. An area of about the size of a football pitch is cut down fromthe Amazon rainforest every minute.
At this rate, all of the world’s rain forests would finish in the next hundredyears.Between 1990 and 2015,Latin America and Caribbean lost the most forest area, losing 970,000 squarekilometres. This part has the second largest share of forests, with about one fourthof the world’s total forests. Russia, Brazil and Canada have the most forest comparedto all countries because there is a lot of land mass in these countries. GlobalDeforestationhas negative and positive global impacts. One of the positive impact is thatthe cleared land can be used to build residential houses, offices and factoriesfor this overpopulated world. Deforestation also means the forest land can beused as farming land to reduce world hunger since production of food wouldincrease.
However,deforestation has negative impacts on the environment too. The habitat of a lotof species are lost. 80% of all of Earth’s animals and plants live in forestsso these species cannot survive after their homes are destroyed. This increasesthe rate of extinction throughout the world.
Deforestation cuts down treeswhich means all the medicines coming from plants and herbs are lost to us.Also, the oxygen content may decrease if no new trees are planted to replacethe old ones. Trees block sun’s rays in the daytime and they hold in heatduring night time. Deforestation would reduce the number of trees which wouldmean extreme temperature swings. Another negative impact of deforestation isthat trees, which absorb greenhouse gases, would be destroyed. Hence, moregreenhouse gases would enter the atmosphere and the rate of global warming willincrease.
The globalperspective for deforestation has been expressed by two authors who havewritten books on this issue. Dauvergne focuses on the forests of Southeast Asiaand Melanesia whereas Stone and D’Andrea thinks about it globally. Dauvergnefeels there is little hope for recovery however Stone and D’Andrea have a lotof hope. Peter Dauvergne’s book is based on the research done in the Philippines,Indonesia, Singapore, Japan and the Solomon Islands.NationalIn India, deforestationhas caused drastic destruction to major Indian forests.
The main causes are:environmental degradation by farmers, loggers and plantation corporations. In2009, India was ranked 10th out of all countries for the amount offorest lost. In 2016, India lost 175,004 Ha of forest. On the other hand, worldannual deforestation is around 13,700,000 Ha. Researchers at forest Reserve Institute (FRI) observed 27 Indianstates and one union territory because productivity over there is low. It wasrecorded that more than two-thirds of villages located near forests aredependent on the jungle for fodder, firewood and other products. VanjamRattamma is a 55-year-old woman from Rathnapuram, Andhra Pradesh, whose meansof survival are to extract forest products and sell them at the weekly marketsin villages.
Like Vanjam Rattamma, more than half of the families in villages,adjoining forests, have no land and average incomes of such families are 8000 rupeesper month. This shows what drastic effect so many families will have to undergobecause of deforestation. Not only in India but Countries in Africa, such asBurundi, also undergo similar conditions.Personal