is when forest land is cleared by humans for their own purposes which involves:
timber production, mining, urban development and farming. Deforestation began
nearly 8000 years ago when humans began to cut down forests for hunting of wild
animals. Then, deforestation increased even more when land was required for
agriculture. Other reasons for deforestation include tress as building material
and land for building houses.
2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres of forests from all around
the world were cleared. Due to
deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres are left. However, in
the beginning the Earth was covered with 16 million square kilometres of
forests. An area of about the size of a football pitch is cut down from
the Amazon rainforest every minute.
At this rate, all of the world’s rain forests would finish in the next hundred
Between 1990 and 2015,
Latin America and Caribbean lost the most forest area, losing 970,000 square
kilometres. This part has the second largest share of forests, with about one fourth
of the world’s total forests. Russia, Brazil and Canada have the most forest compared
to all countries because there is a lot of land mass in these countries.
has negative and positive global impacts. One of the positive impact is that
the cleared land can be used to build residential houses, offices and factories
for this overpopulated world. Deforestation also means the forest land can be
used as farming land to reduce world hunger since production of food would
deforestation has negative impacts on the environment too. The habitat of a lot
of species are lost. 80% of all of Earth’s animals and plants live in forests
so these species cannot survive after their homes are destroyed. This increases
the rate of extinction throughout the world. Deforestation cuts down trees
which means all the medicines coming from plants and herbs are lost to us.
Also, the oxygen content may decrease if no new trees are planted to replace
the old ones. Trees block sun’s rays in the daytime and they hold in heat
during night time. Deforestation would reduce the number of trees which would
mean extreme temperature swings. Another negative impact of deforestation is
that trees, which absorb greenhouse gases, would be destroyed. Hence, more
greenhouse gases would enter the atmosphere and the rate of global warming will
perspective for deforestation has been expressed by two authors who have
written books on this issue. Dauvergne focuses on the forests of Southeast Asia
and Melanesia whereas Stone and D’Andrea thinks about it globally. Dauvergne
feels there is little hope for recovery however Stone and D’Andrea have a lot
of hope. Peter Dauvergne’s book is based on the research done in the Philippines,
Indonesia, Singapore, Japan and the Solomon Islands.
In India, deforestation
has caused drastic destruction to major Indian forests. The main causes are:
environmental degradation by farmers, loggers and plantation corporations. In
2009, India was ranked 10th out of all countries for the amount of
forest lost. In 2016, India lost 175,004 Ha of forest. On the other hand, world
annual deforestation is around 13,700,000 Ha.
Researchers at forest Reserve Institute (FRI) observed 27 Indian
states and one union territory because productivity over there is low. It was
recorded that more than two-thirds of villages located near forests are
dependent on the jungle for fodder, firewood and other products. Vanjam
Rattamma is a 55-year-old woman from Rathnapuram, Andhra Pradesh, whose means
of survival are to extract forest products and sell them at the weekly markets
in villages. Like Vanjam Rattamma, more than half of the families in villages,
adjoining forests, have no land and average incomes of such families are 8000 rupees
per month. This shows what drastic effect so many families will have to undergo
because of deforestation. Not only in India but Countries in Africa, such as
Burundi, also undergo similar conditions.