Accessing a
range of services and facilities can be beneficial to an individual’s
well-being in a number of ways. These may include physical well-being when they
can easily access leisure centres to exercise. Exercise improves one’s physical
strength and boosts their mental well-being as it releases brain chemicals that
make them happy and more relaxed. Physical exercise also makes one feel better
about their appearance, which boost their confidence and improve their
self-esteem. An individual’s mentally well-being can also be benefited as
exercise reduces stress, improves mental health, relieve anxiety and prevent
cognitive decline.

An individual can
benefit socially by accessing a range of services and facilities when they are
supported to use the bus as this makes them feel as part of the society and not
being left out. Taking them to activities of their choice or eating out in a
public place like a restaurant to mingle with other people which they are not
familiar with benefit their social well-being. Individuals can meet with others
which can help them socialise and make friends when they are confident enough
to communicate with new people they meet.

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Identify barriers that individuals may
encounter in accessing services and facilities

There are
barriers that individuals may encounter in accessing services and facilities which
can be environmentally. This may include lack of disabled toilet facilities or
ramps for wheelchairs. The location may be of high risk where it can be near a
busy pub, which can be quite noisy or shops which are a known hang-out for
gangs. Such an environment cannot be favourable to individuals in fear of their
safety. Some doors may be narrow for heavy individuals which may need them to
adjust their body position to go through the door or be impossible for one to
go through if they are using a wheelchair. They can also be lack of suitable
transport to a particular place which the individual want to go to, which would
result in failure or travelling a longer distance for the same service.

There can also be
a communication barrier due to lack of loop systems for those who are using
hearing aids, poor communication skills in staff at a facility such as a
receptionist who is unhelpful, lack of translators or interpreters, lack of
information or publicity about the services or facilities and lack of
information in an appropriate language or format.

Other barriers
may be psychological,  which may be lack
confidence to speak out, they may suffer from anxiety or fear, unfamiliarity,
unwillingness to accept help and may be having concerns at a loss of their
independence. Financially, the barrier may be the cost that they have to pay
for the service or the cost they regard as probable.

Describe ways of overcoming barriers to
accessing services and facilities

Ways of overcoming
barriers to accessing services and facilities would be to check if all
necessary information is available about the services and facilities, what the
challenges may be and the alternatives that can be taken, such as the local
cinema not having a wheelchair access or a loop system. What needs to be done
is look for one that has both of these then encourage the individual to travel
to that cinema.

If there are
problems for finding suitable transport, one can check with the local taxi
firms or other public transport facilities if there can make necessary
adaptations. To overcome barriers, one has to ensure that the individuals have
the right equipment and aids to overcome barriers they may come across, for
example, hearing aids, mobility scooters, wheelchairs and if the barrier is
financial related, resources to meet the costs are to be found.

one needs to be supported and if necessary reassured when they are to access a
service for the first time in case they become anxious or agitated. It can be
of benefit to explain to the individual of the risks involved so they may think
about them to ensure they are confident to go, for example, going swimming or
to the gym.

Explain why it is important to support
individuals to challenge information about services that may present a barrier
to participation

It is important
to support individuals to challenge information about services that may present
a barrier to participation because as a support worker, I have a duty of care
to support individuals of misleading, inaccurate or discriminatory information
about the service, for example, if the information about a service is only
available in a written form, with no option of audio or braille information, an
individual who is visually impaired, would be unable to know anything about it.

If an individual
is using a wheelchair has to visit a location without a wheelchair access at
the main entrance, it is important to check with them first if they would not
mind using the backdoor if suggested to use it as they may not be happy to use
a different entrance from the rest. They would probably feel discriminated and
would like to be treated like everyone.

Supporting an
individual to challenge information about services promotes person centred
approach, make them feel that they are treated as an individual, that their
rights are respected and that they are treated with dignity and respect. This
can prevent the individual from feeling socially isolated or excluded. The
individual may feel that they are listened to, taken seriously and it can
promote their confidence, self-esteem and feelings of self-worth.

Explain own role in supporting others to
follow practices that reduce the spread of infection

My own role in
supporting others to follow practices that reduce the spread of infection is to
abide by all the policies and procedures such as COSHH and Infection Control.
These are put in place for a reason and ought to be followed for everyone to be
safe. There should be washing hand signs in kitchen areas next to the hand sink
to remind people to wash their hands before handling food to prevent the spread
of infection. People should always cover their mouth and nose when sneezing or
coughing, use a tissue to clean their nose and always wash their hands
immediately after. This is a good practice of not spreading any infection.

Mop heads should
be hung outside to dry or be washed in a washing machine, probably on a hot
wash or tumble dried at the end of each shift to prevent the built up of
bacteria. If wet mop heads are left for too long, they are a good habitant for
bacteria, it thrives in moist, dark and dirt areas.

Everyone should
also be encouraged to attend all in house training for infection control and
complete all training courses. These courses are a constant reminder of how
infection can be controlled. Challenging anyone who is not practising the
policies and procedures can be of benefit too as it will reduce infection.
Practising these simple rules of infection control can set an example to the
clients and can enable them to do likewise. Consulting a GP if one has an
infection is vital as the doctor will be able to tell if one has to be at work
or have to wait till the infection has cleared to prevent passing it onto
others in a workplace.





 Explain the importance of ensuring that others
are aware of own whereabouts

The importance
of ensuring that others are aware of own whereabouts is in case of emergency,
for example, fire, and to ensure all involved are safe and secure and to
prevent unnecessary risks by fire fighters entering or re-entering the
building.  The fire fighters will not
waste time looking for me as they will easily locate where I am at that
particular time.

Also, for health
and safety reasons and so I can be contacted if needed.

For professional
reasons, others should ensure that I am working in line with my job description
and that the workload in being managed, having individuals in the right place
at the right time doing the right work. Knowing the whereabouts of a colleague
also maintains staff moral as will be at their designated areas doing their
duties which will prevent affecting others being overloaded with work. It is
vital for a lone worker to inform their colleagues so they may know who they
will be with, for example, an individual, in case there is a risk of violence or
abuse from the members of the public, theft or intruders, sudden illness,
emergencies and risks related to driving.

Describe common signs and indicators of

Common signs and
indicators of stress include feeling tearful and upset for no reason. Feeling
agitated and anxious because one is constantly worried about the worst that can
happen to them. When they have such thoughts, one can find it difficult to
relax and quiet their mind, causing restlessness despite being tired.  One can become dizzy, experience aches and
pains and also have increased heartbeat which can make them sweaty.

Headaches due to
constant negative thoughts of how bad things can become, which then causes
anxiety and panic attack. Restlessness can be another sign which can be a
biological reaction that one cannot control due to stress. Lack of
concentration and appetite are common ones too. There can be other people,
however, who over eat, leading to obesity which can have a detrimental effect
on their health.

Daily tasks can
be neglected as well as one’s personal hygiene, that is, self-neglect. Some
people narrow their eyes, can become shaky, and be indecisive, have uncontrolled
speech, experience anger and be verbal aggressive. They would usually lack sense
of humour and empathy, also isolate themselves and feel disinterested in their
hobbies, for example, socialising or sports. They can become reckless in behaviour
and use inappropriate language that is distasteful to others. This behaviour
can cause one to feel bad about themselves, have a low self-esteem, feel
lonely, worthless and depressed.


Describe signs that indicate own stress

Raising my voice
in anger and getting irritated easily by things that do not really matter. I do
not want to be in a closed environment and would walk away from such to be in
an open space and would also avoid interaction with others. I would
intentionally isolate myself from others and want to be on my own.

 Lack of appetite, oversleeping and lack of
interest in doing day to day activities are some of the signs. I would be fond
of provoking others and deliberately attack them to relive the anger in me. I
would also become more defensive and shift the blame on someone or others and
can also be out of character, for example, do things I would not usual do, like
showing disrespect.

Headaches can be
another sign especially caused by constantly thinking of negative things that
bring me sadness. I would them find comfort in overeating which then
decreases  my energy levels leaving me
feeling lethargic.

Analyse factors that tend to trigger own

Factors that
tend to trigger own stress can be lack of finance due to unforeseen financial
needs. Family matters, relationships and bereavement can trigger stress because
such things happen unexpectedly. It can be very hard to come to terms with the
situation and be able to function as normal.

An unmanageable
workload and work life balance triggers stress. Working long, tiring hours can
affect one’s performance which can lead to errors, even disciplinary actions.
There can be a conflict or disagreement with colleagues which other people take
personally, thereby affecting their mood causing them stress. Not being
listened to and looked down upon can be other factors as this makes one feel
less valued or unimportant. Discrimination is another factor that tend to
trigger own stress. This makes one feel unequal to others hence treated
differently and this can stress someone as they could not do anything to change
the situation or how they are judged by others based on their appearance or

Compare strategies for managing stress

Strategies for
managing stress can be healthy or unhealthy. Healthy ways are to identify what
is causing it, then decide if anything can be changed and implement those
changes. Talking to someone can be helpful as this gives relief instead of
bottling things up. Letting it out is also beneficial, it can be through
screaming, shouting or even crying. A reduction of activities in one’s life has
to be considered and getting enough rest is vital.

Some people tend
to manage stress in an unhealthy way by misusing alcohol or drugs,
self-harming, smoking, under or over eating or being aggressive. These strategies
have not been helpful but seemed to have worsened the situation as the individual
may feel worse than before as these strategies are short term. In the
long-term, these can lead to addiction and a health concern.

Screaming and
shouting at people who support the individual and being violent to them, either
verbal, physical or both is not fruitful. These can make them feel empty after
realising their actions and that they have let others down who had tried to
assist them manage their stress. People who wanted to support them manage their
stress may give up on them due to their unruly behaviour which can also have
negative impact on them.

Identify the differences between bacteria,
viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria are
very small singular organisms which are found almost everywhere, which multiply
by themselves and live within and on most living and non-living things. Most of
them are harmless and beneficial to human body, yet some cause infectious
diseases. Bacterial infections are normally treated with a course of
antibiotics and a bacterium affects a part of the body and do not spread across
or through the body.


Viruses are
coated genetic material that invades cells and uses the cells for reproduction
and cannot survive outside their host. They are made up of genes and proteins
and cannot multiply on their own. They are normally spread from human to human,
are very tough and there are not many effective medicines available to treat
viral diseases.


Fungi are
multi-celled living organisms that like to grow in warm, moist places. Some
fungi are a benefit to us, such as penicillin but some are harmful to our
health. They can act as pathogens like bacteria and viruses. Human fungal
diseases occur due to infection or fungal toxins with symptoms such as itching,
coughing, fever and wheezing but they can also be as serious as meningitis or
even death.


Parasites are
types of living plants and animals that derive benefit from the metabolism of
other animals and plants. They are organisms that need other organisms for
survival and draw nourishment and other needs from their host. Those that cause
infection and disease are known as pathogenic parasites.


Identify common illnesses and infections
caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Bacteria cause
food poisoning and salmonellosis. Other illnesses and infections it causes are
tuberculosis, MRSA, coccidiosis, bronchitis, ear infection, gonorrhoea,
syphilis, chlamydia, dysentery and tonsillitis.

Viruses cause
common colds, influenza, pneumonia, ear infections, HIV/AIDS, herpes, dengue,
encephalitis, stomach flu and warts.


Fungi cause
athlete’s foot, ringworm and yeast infection and Valley fever.


Parasites cause
worms, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria and sleeping sickness.


Describe what is meant by “infection” and

Infection is an
invasion and multiplication or micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and
parasites that are not normally present in the body, for example,
staphylococcus aureus on the skin is not harmful but can cause an infection in
the cut. These then cause someone to become sick or ill. The micro-organisms
that live naturally in the body are not considered infections as they cause no
harm to the person’s health unlike those which invade body tissues, causing a disease.
For example, the bacteria that live within the mouth and intestines are not
infections and these are of benefit to the person’s body. They naturally fight
some infections and protect the body becoming infected.