Accessing arange of services and facilities can be beneficial to an individual’swell-being in a number of ways.

These may include physical well-being when theycan easily access leisure centres to exercise. Exercise improves one’s physicalstrength and boosts their mental well-being as it releases brain chemicals thatmake them happy and more relaxed. Physical exercise also makes one feel betterabout their appearance, which boost their confidence and improve theirself-esteem.

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An individual’s mentally well-being can also be benefited asexercise reduces stress, improves mental health, relieve anxiety and preventcognitive decline.An individual canbenefit socially by accessing a range of services and facilities when they aresupported to use the bus as this makes them feel as part of the society and notbeing left out. Taking them to activities of their choice or eating out in apublic place like a restaurant to mingle with other people which they are notfamiliar with benefit their social well-being. Individuals can meet with otherswhich can help them socialise and make friends when they are confident enoughto communicate with new people they meet.1.

      Identify barriers that individuals mayencounter in accessing services and facilitiesThere arebarriers that individuals may encounter in accessing services and facilities whichcan be environmentally. This may include lack of disabled toilet facilities orramps for wheelchairs. The location may be of high risk where it can be near abusy pub, which can be quite noisy or shops which are a known hang-out forgangs. Such an environment cannot be favourable to individuals in fear of theirsafety. Some doors may be narrow for heavy individuals which may need them toadjust their body position to go through the door or be impossible for one togo through if they are using a wheelchair. They can also be lack of suitabletransport to a particular place which the individual want to go to, which wouldresult in failure or travelling a longer distance for the same service.There can also bea communication barrier due to lack of loop systems for those who are usinghearing aids, poor communication skills in staff at a facility such as areceptionist who is unhelpful, lack of translators or interpreters, lack ofinformation or publicity about the services or facilities and lack ofinformation in an appropriate language or format.Other barriersmay be psychological,  which may be lackconfidence to speak out, they may suffer from anxiety or fear, unfamiliarity,unwillingness to accept help and may be having concerns at a loss of theirindependence.

Financially, the barrier may be the cost that they have to payfor the service or the cost they regard as probable.2.      Describe ways of overcoming barriers toaccessing services and facilitiesWays of overcomingbarriers to accessing services and facilities would be to check if allnecessary information is available about the services and facilities, what thechallenges may be and the alternatives that can be taken, such as the localcinema not having a wheelchair access or a loop system. What needs to be doneis look for one that has both of these then encourage the individual to travelto that cinema. If there areproblems for finding suitable transport, one can check with the local taxifirms or other public transport facilities if there can make necessaryadaptations. To overcome barriers, one has to ensure that the individuals havethe right equipment and aids to overcome barriers they may come across, forexample, hearing aids, mobility scooters, wheelchairs and if the barrier isfinancial related, resources to meet the costs are to be found.Psychologically,one needs to be supported and if necessary reassured when they are to access aservice for the first time in case they become anxious or agitated. It can beof benefit to explain to the individual of the risks involved so they may thinkabout them to ensure they are confident to go, for example, going swimming orto the gym.

3.      Explain why it is important to supportindividuals to challenge information about services that may present a barrierto participationIt is importantto support individuals to challenge information about services that may presenta barrier to participation because as a support worker, I have a duty of careto support individuals of misleading, inaccurate or discriminatory informationabout the service, for example, if the information about a service is onlyavailable in a written form, with no option of audio or braille information, anindividual who is visually impaired, would be unable to know anything about it.If an individualis using a wheelchair has to visit a location without a wheelchair access atthe main entrance, it is important to check with them first if they would notmind using the backdoor if suggested to use it as they may not be happy to usea different entrance from the rest. They would probably feel discriminated andwould like to be treated like everyone.Supporting anindividual to challenge information about services promotes person centredapproach, make them feel that they are treated as an individual, that theirrights are respected and that they are treated with dignity and respect. Thiscan prevent the individual from feeling socially isolated or excluded. Theindividual may feel that they are listened to, taken seriously and it canpromote their confidence, self-esteem and feelings of self-worth.4.

      Explain own role in supporting others tofollow practices that reduce the spread of infectionMy own role insupporting others to follow practices that reduce the spread of infection is toabide by all the policies and procedures such as COSHH and Infection Control.These are put in place for a reason and ought to be followed for everyone to besafe. There should be washing hand signs in kitchen areas next to the hand sinkto remind people to wash their hands before handling food to prevent the spreadof infection.

People should always cover their mouth and nose when sneezing orcoughing, use a tissue to clean their nose and always wash their handsimmediately after. This is a good practice of not spreading any infection. Mop heads shouldbe hung outside to dry or be washed in a washing machine, probably on a hotwash or tumble dried at the end of each shift to prevent the built up ofbacteria.

If wet mop heads are left for too long, they are a good habitant forbacteria, it thrives in moist, dark and dirt areas.Everyone shouldalso be encouraged to attend all in house training for infection control andcomplete all training courses. These courses are a constant reminder of howinfection can be controlled. Challenging anyone who is not practising thepolicies and procedures can be of benefit too as it will reduce infection.Practising these simple rules of infection control can set an example to theclients and can enable them to do likewise. Consulting a GP if one has aninfection is vital as the doctor will be able to tell if one has to be at workor have to wait till the infection has cleared to prevent passing it ontoothers in a workplace.    5.

       Explain the importance of ensuring that othersare aware of own whereaboutsThe importanceof ensuring that others are aware of own whereabouts is in case of emergency,for example, fire, and to ensure all involved are safe and secure and toprevent unnecessary risks by fire fighters entering or re-entering thebuilding.  The fire fighters will notwaste time looking for me as they will easily locate where I am at thatparticular time.Also, for healthand safety reasons and so I can be contacted if needed.For professionalreasons, others should ensure that I am working in line with my job descriptionand that the workload in being managed, having individuals in the right placeat the right time doing the right work. Knowing the whereabouts of a colleaguealso maintains staff moral as will be at their designated areas doing theirduties which will prevent affecting others being overloaded with work. It isvital for a lone worker to inform their colleagues so they may know who theywill be with, for example, an individual, in case there is a risk of violence orabuse from the members of the public, theft or intruders, sudden illness,emergencies and risks related to driving.6.

      Describe common signs and indicators ofstressCommon signs andindicators of stress include feeling tearful and upset for no reason. Feelingagitated and anxious because one is constantly worried about the worst that canhappen to them. When they have such thoughts, one can find it difficult torelax and quiet their mind, causing restlessness despite being tired.  One can become dizzy, experience aches andpains and also have increased heartbeat which can make them sweaty.Headaches due toconstant negative thoughts of how bad things can become, which then causesanxiety and panic attack. Restlessness can be another sign which can be abiological reaction that one cannot control due to stress. Lack ofconcentration and appetite are common ones too.

There can be other people,however, who over eat, leading to obesity which can have a detrimental effecton their health.Daily tasks canbe neglected as well as one’s personal hygiene, that is, self-neglect. Somepeople narrow their eyes, can become shaky, and be indecisive, have uncontrolledspeech, experience anger and be verbal aggressive.

They would usually lack senseof humour and empathy, also isolate themselves and feel disinterested in theirhobbies, for example, socialising or sports. They can become reckless in behaviourand use inappropriate language that is distasteful to others. This behaviourcan cause one to feel bad about themselves, have a low self-esteem, feellonely, worthless and depressed. 7.      Describe signs that indicate own stressRaising my voicein anger and getting irritated easily by things that do not really matter. I donot want to be in a closed environment and would walk away from such to be inan open space and would also avoid interaction with others. I wouldintentionally isolate myself from others and want to be on my own. Lack of appetite, oversleeping and lack ofinterest in doing day to day activities are some of the signs.

I would be fondof provoking others and deliberately attack them to relive the anger in me. Iwould also become more defensive and shift the blame on someone or others andcan also be out of character, for example, do things I would not usual do, likeshowing disrespect.Headaches can beanother sign especially caused by constantly thinking of negative things thatbring me sadness. I would them find comfort in overeating which thendecreases  my energy levels leaving mefeeling lethargic.8.      Analyse factors that tend to trigger ownstressFactors thattend to trigger own stress can be lack of finance due to unforeseen financialneeds. Family matters, relationships and bereavement can trigger stress becausesuch things happen unexpectedly. It can be very hard to come to terms with thesituation and be able to function as normal.

An unmanageableworkload and work life balance triggers stress. Working long, tiring hours canaffect one’s performance which can lead to errors, even disciplinary actions.There can be a conflict or disagreement with colleagues which other people takepersonally, thereby affecting their mood causing them stress. Not beinglistened to and looked down upon can be other factors as this makes one feelless valued or unimportant. Discrimination is another factor that tend totrigger own stress. This makes one feel unequal to others hence treateddifferently and this can stress someone as they could not do anything to changethe situation or how they are judged by others based on their appearance orperformance.9.

      Compare strategies for managing stressStrategies formanaging stress can be healthy or unhealthy. Healthy ways are to identify whatis causing it, then decide if anything can be changed and implement thosechanges. Talking to someone can be helpful as this gives relief instead ofbottling things up. Letting it out is also beneficial, it can be throughscreaming, shouting or even crying. A reduction of activities in one’s life hasto be considered and getting enough rest is vital.

Some people tendto manage stress in an unhealthy way by misusing alcohol or drugs,self-harming, smoking, under or over eating or being aggressive. These strategieshave not been helpful but seemed to have worsened the situation as the individualmay feel worse than before as these strategies are short term. In thelong-term, these can lead to addiction and a health concern.Screaming andshouting at people who support the individual and being violent to them, eitherverbal, physical or both is not fruitful. These can make them feel empty afterrealising their actions and that they have let others down who had tried toassist them manage their stress.

People who wanted to support them manage theirstress may give up on them due to their unruly behaviour which can also havenegative impact on them.10.  Identify the differences between bacteria,viruses, fungi and parasitesBacteria arevery small singular organisms which are found almost everywhere, which multiplyby themselves and live within and on most living and non-living things. Most ofthem are harmless and beneficial to human body, yet some cause infectiousdiseases.

Bacterial infections are normally treated with a course ofantibiotics and a bacterium affects a part of the body and do not spread acrossor through the body. Viruses arecoated genetic material that invades cells and uses the cells for reproductionand cannot survive outside their host. They are made up of genes and proteinsand cannot multiply on their own. They are normally spread from human to human,are very tough and there are not many effective medicines available to treatviral diseases. Fungi aremulti-celled living organisms that like to grow in warm, moist places. Somefungi are a benefit to us, such as penicillin but some are harmful to ourhealth.

They can act as pathogens like bacteria and viruses. Human fungaldiseases occur due to infection or fungal toxins with symptoms such as itching,coughing, fever and wheezing but they can also be as serious as meningitis oreven death.  Parasites aretypes of living plants and animals that derive benefit from the metabolism ofother animals and plants. They are organisms that need other organisms forsurvival and draw nourishment and other needs from their host. Those that causeinfection and disease are known as pathogenic parasites.

 11.  Identify common illnesses and infectionscaused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasitesBacteria causefood poisoning and salmonellosis. Other illnesses and infections it causes aretuberculosis, MRSA, coccidiosis, bronchitis, ear infection, gonorrhoea,syphilis, chlamydia, dysentery and tonsillitis.Viruses causecommon colds, influenza, pneumonia, ear infections, HIV/AIDS, herpes, dengue,encephalitis, stomach flu and warts.

 Fungi causeathlete’s foot, ringworm and yeast infection and Valley fever. Parasites causeworms, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria and sleeping sickness. 12.

  Describe what is meant by “infection” and”colonisation”Infection is aninvasion and multiplication or micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses andparasites that are not normally present in the body, for example,staphylococcus aureus on the skin is not harmful but can cause an infection inthe cut. These then cause someone to become sick or ill. The micro-organismsthat live naturally in the body are not considered infections as they cause noharm to the person’s health unlike those which invade body tissues, causing a disease.

For example, the bacteria that live within the mouth and intestines are notinfections and these are of benefit to the person’s body. They naturally fightsome infections and protect the body becoming infected.