can be defined as the reaction of the body to any non-specific request loaded
on the body. Stress, can be positive or negative or threat. In this article,
the following questions were sought: (1) What is stress? (2) Who is stressful?
(3) What are the causes of organizational stress? (4) How can organizational
stress be prevented? (5) What is stress management?

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The stress expressed as the disease of modern society
is, in fact, a part of everyday life. Today, most people have an intense stress
burden even if they do not realize it. Whatever is good or bad, the mental
changes in our lives are stressful situations. Anything that causes a change in
our everyday routine is stressful. A change in our body health leads to a
ströse. Mental changes also lead to ströse as real, concrete changes. The
claims that we are witnesses in our daily lives, interpretations, conflicts and
conflicts also cause my stress life.

What is Stress?

The word “stress” comes from the Latin
“estrictia”. Stress has been used in the 17th century in such
meanings as disaster, trouble, misery, trouble, sorrow, elem. In the 18th and
19th centuries, the meaning of the concept has changed and has been used for
object, person, organs and spiritual structure in meaning like power,
oppression, difficulty. Accordingly, stress has begun to be used to mean the
resistance of the object and the person to the distortion and distortion of the
influence and shape of such forces.

Selye (1956), a pioneer scientist interested in
stress, stressed that “the response of the body to any non-special request
that is burdened “(Johnstone, 1989: 4). According to Cücelo?lu, stress is
“the effort of the individual to spend beyond their bodily and
psychological limits due to the incompatible conditions in the physical and
social environment” (Cücelo?lu, 1994: 321). Selye sees stress as an
environmental stimulant that affects the individual. After a work he did in
1950, he defined the term stress as a condition he received against the
environment within the organism. At the end of this approach, Selye emphasizes
the concepts of stress and stressor, the environmental stimulant that creates a
series of reactions in the individual stressor, and the reaction that the
individual shows against such stimulants is stress. As a result, Selye
described stress as “a general reaction of the individual to various
environmental stressors” (Erdo?an, 1999). Selye, stress, defined the inner
balance of the creature as a condition imposed by its environment, the inner or
outer periphery of that creature. According to Selye, stress is the sum of all
the different harmonies going on in any body. The work of the organs,
stretching and loosening of the muscles, secretions, etc. Stress is a normal
and necessary process that results in life (Dyce, 1973).

There is a very slight difference between stress and
stimulant. Because the stimulus is something that causes a reaction in the
organism. There is a degree of difference between stress and stimulant. In
order for any stimulant to be a stressor, it must exceed the pre-programmed
comfort threshold for a particular sensory organ and distort the system. With
this stress response, the system initiates a harmonization process to return to
the balance. Voltage is the effect of stress on the system. Because of the
tension, the system learns that it is in a state of stress and enters the
process of turning the balance. The difficulty is the amount of energy that the
system pays or the amount of energy it consumes in the process of returning to
the equilibrium (?ahin, 1995).

Stress is a concept that affects individuals and
affects their behavior and relationships with other people. Stress is not a
condition that stops, stops, or spontaneously. In order for the stress to
occur, the environment in which the person is living or living and the changes
that take place in the environment must affect the human being. Every individual
is affected by changes in the environment, but some individuals are affected
more or less slowly than these changes. Stress is about a change that takes
place in the environment in which the person lives, or a change in the
environment that affects the person. The personality traits of the affected
person are influenced by the degree to which they are under influence. In order
for the stress to form, the individual’s body system needs to move through the
formation of special biochemical changes in the body of the affected individual
(Pehlivan, 1995).

Stress Symptoms

Stress has some specific indications. These
indications are; tension, constant worry

1984: 439. Akt.Pehlivan, 1995: 45) .There is a high incidence of hearing loss,
alcohol and cigarette use in extreme cases, insomnia, difficulties in
cooperating, inadequacy, emotional imbalance, digestive problems.

Short-lived stress may cause short-term outcomes such
as tension, increased heart rate, or excessive alcohol and cigarette use to be permanent.
Stress also leads to increased eating and drinking and cigarette use which have
a high risk for coronary heart disease (Kahn and Cooper, 1993).

Symptoms related to stress are physical, emotional, mental
and social in four groups (Braham, 1998: 52-54):

1. Physical Indications: Headache, irregular sleep,
back pain, jaw contraction or tooth creaking, constipation, diarrhea and
colitis, rash, muscle aches, indigestion and ulcer, high blood pressure or
heart attack, excessive sweating, change in appetite, fatigue or loss of
energy, increase in accidents.

2. Emotional Signs: Anxiety or anxiety, depression or
quick crying, mental

and constant change of state, agility, tension, decreased self-esteem, or feelings
of insecurity, extreme vulnerability or easy fragility, anger outbursts,
aggression or hostility feel emotionally exhausted.

3. Mental State: Concentration, difficulty in decision
making, forgetfulness, mental confusion, memory weakness, over-dreaming,
overworking with one idea or thought, loss of humor, low productivity, decrease
in job quality, increase in errors, weakness in judgment.

4. Social Indications: Insecurity against people, blaming
others, making appointments to go away or to cancel too soon, to try to find
mistakes in people and to learn by word, to be more defensive attitude, to be
suddenly a lot of people, not to talk.

5. If these indications are not common except in the
usual circumstances, the individual is under stress means. The first step in
controlling stress is to be aware of the stress. What needs to be done is to
analyze the individual’s physical, emotional, mental and social characteristics
well and to be able to cope with the stressful situation in the best way by
recognizing these symptoms in abnormal situations.

that lead to stress

environmental factors in stress formation play a role and stressful environment
form. Today, employees and managers work in highly competitive, variable,
uncertain and even ambiguous business environments. Especially when the
stressing factors are due to the fact that the managers and employees can not
control it, and because of the other, close and general environmental
conditions, the managers and employees are having difficulties in
self-sacrificing and adapting to these environments. People who are unable to
perform their plans and programs as they should, and who have to change external
conditions by force, are experiencing great stress or tension. We can gather
the stressing factors in three main groups. These; (1) sources of stress on the
individual, (2) sources of stress created by the individual’s work environment,
and (3) sources of stress created by the general environment in which the
individual lives (Pehlivan, 1995).

Stress Resources

we examine the relation between stress and organizational relationship, it is
possible to see that the personality of occupation is also an organizational
stress source. How the person perceives the environment, how he or she reacts
to environmental changes and relationships is also concerned with the person
concerned within certain boundaries. The fact that the occupation is an autocratic
one, gender, emotional inward or outward-looking structure, emotional hurt very
quickly, resistance to negativities and need for success in general can be a
source of stress in the organizational structure (Erdo?an, 1999). The more
important the personality is in the behavior of the occupation within the
organization, the more important it is that the individuals are affected by the
sources of organizational stress. Generally, individuals are different from
each other in terms of their level of prestige. Three types of occupational
personality can be put into place (Baltas and Baltas, 1987: 222; Pehlivan,
2000), which are classified as type A, type B and mixed type personality, if
they classify the occupations in terms of stress tendencies.

behavior characteristics often rush to talk, while other people are talking
rush to hate to wait in line, to never catch up with something, to have a
program full of more activities than time allows, to hate wasting time, to try
to do many things at the same time, to be impatient with very slow people, is
to spare little time for friendship or pleasure. Most organizations reward
those who exhibit A-type behaviors and expect their managers to adopt A-type
behavioral models. For this reason, many individuals in organizations show
these characteristics at the expense of physical and mental health (Pehlivan,

exhibiting type B behavior are exactly the opposite of individuals of type A.
Type B people are free from solid rules and are flexible. They do not mind
time, they are comfortable and patient. They are not overly ambitious about
success. They do not easily get angry and uneasy. They know how to enjoy their
work. They do not feel guilty about their work comfortably, they work calmly
and regularly. B type is an easy living type, unlike Type A individual. They
are very open and relaxed. They will not be interested in time. Success does
not give them much. They do not compete with others. Talk is even more
comfortable and calm. Type B individuals are a certain type from themselves and
their surroundings (Pehlivan, 2000). Individuals working in organizations can
also mix the characteristics of A and B type. These types of individuals are
called mixed types. But what is important is that the individual behaves more
closely to the characteristics of the individual. The aim is to ensure that
workplaces work in peace with other people in the workplace and business
environment without harming them (Pehlivan, 2000).


order to cope with stress and increase the quality of life, changing the
reaction to the situation or situation is called stress management.

strategies that are used individually have a very important and important place
in coping with stress. The commonality of these strategies is that almost all
of them predict that personal habits and physical, psychological and behavioral
structures will be controlled. Thus, attempts are made to neutralize stress
reactions that start at the bedside and are harmful. Participation in social,
cultural and sporting activities, massage, prayer and worship are important for
the individual to cope with stress, physical movements (exercise), respiration
exercises, meditation, biorefeeds, relaxation, nutrition and diet, , time
management techniques may be useful (Pehlivan, 1995). Erdo?an (1999) argues
that as individual strategies in coping with stress, an effective time management,
relaxation practices, positive imagination, exercise and body movements,
behavioral self-control, communication, meditation, food control and massage,
the individual peculiar hobby and outward turn.


at every stage of life is defined as an intrinsic reaction to the situation
that people perceive as a threat or difficulty. Stress is the result of
interaction with the outside world, sometimes as a result of time pressures,
sometimes as an unexpected response or as a result of events, as well as
factors related to one’s inner world (Kara, 2009). Stress is an inseparable
part of our life. In order to be able to move human life to a higher quality,
higher standards in every respect, it is necessary to learn how to cope with
stress effectively and to cope effectively (Balta?, 1996).

the helplessness of the person and the way out is the reaction that emotions
and body associations reveal. There are many definitions in the literature on
the concept of stress. Stress was unknown to the community in the 1950s and in
the 1970s many people began to worry about the harmful effects of stress.
Stress was defined as a disease of the twentieth century by the United Nations
in the 1990s as an epidemic of ten years by the Time Magazine in the 1980s
(Krohe, 1999: 36). Stress, like many of us know, forces, restricts and prevents

it is all the reactions
we have to the situations. The type and source of these reactions can vary from
individual to individual. As the concept of stress is sometimes misinterpreted;
it is not limited to the pressure and strain only felt. Stress in dictionary
meaning; “14. in the sense of difficulty, hardship, bad luck in the
century “; In the 17th century, “disaster, trouble, trouble, grief
“. In the 18th and 19th centuries the concept of meaning has changed; It
has been used as a force for the person, organ or spiritual structure depending
on the situation and objects in the meaning like “power, pressure,
hard” (Weiss, 1993).

environmental factors in stress formation play a role and stressful environment
form. Today, employees and managers work in highly competitive, variable,
uncertain and even ambiguous business environments. Especially when the
stressing factors are due to the fact that the managers and employees can not
control it, and because of the other, close and general environmental
conditions, the managers and employees are having difficulties in
self-sacrificing and adapting to these environments.

must be dealt with effectively. There is no common solution to the stress that
is good for everyone. Each person has a weak point, which is weak when it is
constantly exposed to stress. Therefore, one must find and try methods that are
appropriate for his personality and lifestyle. In other words, the individual
should handle the management of stress.






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