Abstract:Stresscan be defined as the reaction of the body to any non-specific request loadedon the body. Stress, can be positive or negative or threat. In this article,the following questions were sought: (1) What is stress? (2) Who is stressful?(3) What are the causes of organizational stress? (4) How can organizationalstress be prevented? (5) What is stress management?Introduction:The stress expressed as the disease of modern societyis, in fact, a part of everyday life. Today, most people have an intense stressburden even if they do not realize it. Whatever is good or bad, the mentalchanges in our lives are stressful situations. Anything that causes a change inour everyday routine is stressful.
A change in our body health leads to aströse. Mental changes also lead to ströse as real, concrete changes. Theclaims that we are witnesses in our daily lives, interpretations, conflicts andconflicts also cause my stress life.What is Stress?The word “stress” comes from the Latin”estrictia”. Stress has been used in the 17th century in suchmeanings as disaster, trouble, misery, trouble, sorrow, elem. In the 18th and19th centuries, the meaning of the concept has changed and has been used forobject, person, organs and spiritual structure in meaning like power,oppression, difficulty. Accordingly, stress has begun to be used to mean theresistance of the object and the person to the distortion and distortion of theinfluence and shape of such forces.
Selye (1956), a pioneer scientist interested instress, stressed that “the response of the body to any non-special requestthat is burdened “(Johnstone, 1989: 4). According to Cücelo?lu, stress is”the effort of the individual to spend beyond their bodily andpsychological limits due to the incompatible conditions in the physical andsocial environment” (Cücelo?lu, 1994: 321). Selye sees stress as anenvironmental stimulant that affects the individual. After a work he did in1950, he defined the term stress as a condition he received against theenvironment within the organism. At the end of this approach, Selye emphasizesthe concepts of stress and stressor, the environmental stimulant that creates aseries of reactions in the individual stressor, and the reaction that theindividual shows against such stimulants is stress. As a result, Selyedescribed stress as “a general reaction of the individual to variousenvironmental stressors” (Erdo?an, 1999). Selye, stress, defined the innerbalance of the creature as a condition imposed by its environment, the inner orouter periphery of that creature.
According to Selye, stress is the sum of allthe different harmonies going on in any body. The work of the organs,stretching and loosening of the muscles, secretions, etc. Stress is a normaland necessary process that results in life (Dyce, 1973).There is a very slight difference between stress andstimulant.
Because the stimulus is something that causes a reaction in theorganism. There is a degree of difference between stress and stimulant. Inorder for any stimulant to be a stressor, it must exceed the pre-programmedcomfort threshold for a particular sensory organ and distort the system. Withthis stress response, the system initiates a harmonization process to return tothe balance. Voltage is the effect of stress on the system. Because of thetension, the system learns that it is in a state of stress and enters theprocess of turning the balance. The difficulty is the amount of energy that thesystem pays or the amount of energy it consumes in the process of returning tothe equilibrium (?ahin, 1995).
Stress is a concept that affects individuals andaffects their behavior and relationships with other people. Stress is not acondition that stops, stops, or spontaneously. In order for the stress tooccur, the environment in which the person is living or living and the changesthat take place in the environment must affect the human being.
Every individualis affected by changes in the environment, but some individuals are affectedmore or less slowly than these changes. Stress is about a change that takesplace in the environment in which the person lives, or a change in theenvironment that affects the person. The personality traits of the affectedperson are influenced by the degree to which they are under influence. In orderfor the stress to form, the individual’s body system needs to move through theformation of special biochemical changes in the body of the affected individual(Pehlivan, 1995).Stress SymptomsStress has some specific indications. Theseindications are; tension, constant worry(Davis,1984: 439. Akt.Pehlivan, 1995: 45) .
There is a high incidence of hearing loss,alcohol and cigarette use in extreme cases, insomnia, difficulties incooperating, inadequacy, emotional imbalance, digestive problems.Short-lived stress may cause short-term outcomes suchas tension, increased heart rate, or excessive alcohol and cigarette use to be permanent.Stress also leads to increased eating and drinking and cigarette use which havea high risk for coronary heart disease (Kahn and Cooper, 1993).
Symptoms related to stress are physical, emotional, mentaland social in four groups (Braham, 1998: 52-54):1. Physical Indications: Headache, irregular sleep,back pain, jaw contraction or tooth creaking, constipation, diarrhea andcolitis, rash, muscle aches, indigestion and ulcer, high blood pressure orheart attack, excessive sweating, change in appetite, fatigue or loss ofenergy, increase in accidents.2. Emotional Signs: Anxiety or anxiety, depression orquick crying, mentalrapidand constant change of state, agility, tension, decreased self-esteem, or feelingsof insecurity, extreme vulnerability or easy fragility, anger outbursts,aggression or hostility feel emotionally exhausted.3.
Mental State: Concentration, difficulty in decisionmaking, forgetfulness, mental confusion, memory weakness, over-dreaming,overworking with one idea or thought, loss of humor, low productivity, decreasein job quality, increase in errors, weakness in judgment.4. Social Indications: Insecurity against people, blamingothers, making appointments to go away or to cancel too soon, to try to findmistakes in people and to learn by word, to be more defensive attitude, to besuddenly a lot of people, not to talk.5. If these indications are not common except in theusual circumstances, the individual is under stress means. The first step incontrolling stress is to be aware of the stress.
What needs to be done is toanalyze the individual’s physical, emotional, mental and social characteristicswell and to be able to cope with the stressful situation in the best way byrecognizing these symptoms in abnormal situations.Factorsthat lead to stressManyenvironmental factors in stress formation play a role and stressful environmentform. Today, employees and managers work in highly competitive, variable,uncertain and even ambiguous business environments. Especially when thestressing factors are due to the fact that the managers and employees can notcontrol it, and because of the other, close and general environmentalconditions, the managers and employees are having difficulties inself-sacrificing and adapting to these environments. People who are unable toperform their plans and programs as they should, and who have to change externalconditions by force, are experiencing great stress or tension.
We can gatherthe stressing factors in three main groups. These; (1) sources of stress on theindividual, (2) sources of stress created by the individual’s work environment,and (3) sources of stress created by the general environment in which theindividual lives (Pehlivan, 1995).PersonalStress ResourcesWhenwe examine the relation between stress and organizational relationship, it ispossible to see that the personality of occupation is also an organizationalstress source. How the person perceives the environment, how he or she reactsto environmental changes and relationships is also concerned with the personconcerned within certain boundaries. The fact that the occupation is an autocraticone, gender, emotional inward or outward-looking structure, emotional hurt veryquickly, resistance to negativities and need for success in general can be asource of stress in the organizational structure (Erdo?an, 1999).
The moreimportant the personality is in the behavior of the occupation within theorganization, the more important it is that the individuals are affected by thesources of organizational stress. Generally, individuals are different fromeach other in terms of their level of prestige. Three types of occupationalpersonality can be put into place (Baltas and Baltas, 1987: 222; Pehlivan,2000), which are classified as type A, type B and mixed type personality, ifthey classify the occupations in terms of stress tendencies.A-typebehavior characteristics often rush to talk, while other people are talkingrush to hate to wait in line, to never catch up with something, to have aprogram full of more activities than time allows, to hate wasting time, to tryto do many things at the same time, to be impatient with very slow people, isto spare little time for friendship or pleasure. Most organizations rewardthose who exhibit A-type behaviors and expect their managers to adopt A-typebehavioral models.
For this reason, many individuals in organizations showthese characteristics at the expense of physical and mental health (Pehlivan,1995).Individualsexhibiting type B behavior are exactly the opposite of individuals of type A.Type B people are free from solid rules and are flexible. They do not mindtime, they are comfortable and patient. They are not overly ambitious aboutsuccess.
They do not easily get angry and uneasy. They know how to enjoy theirwork. They do not feel guilty about their work comfortably, they work calmlyand regularly. B type is an easy living type, unlike Type A individual. Theyare very open and relaxed. They will not be interested in time.
Success doesnot give them much. They do not compete with others. Talk is even morecomfortable and calm.
Type B individuals are a certain type from themselves andtheir surroundings (Pehlivan, 2000). Individuals working in organizations canalso mix the characteristics of A and B type. These types of individuals arecalled mixed types. But what is important is that the individual behaves moreclosely to the characteristics of the individual. The aim is to ensure thatworkplaces work in peace with other people in the workplace and businessenvironment without harming them (Pehlivan, 2000).StressManagementInorder to cope with stress and increase the quality of life, changing thereaction to the situation or situation is called stress management.Somestrategies that are used individually have a very important and important placein coping with stress. The commonality of these strategies is that almost allof them predict that personal habits and physical, psychological and behavioralstructures will be controlled.
Thus, attempts are made to neutralize stressreactions that start at the bedside and are harmful. Participation in social,cultural and sporting activities, massage, prayer and worship are important forthe individual to cope with stress, physical movements (exercise), respirationexercises, meditation, biorefeeds, relaxation, nutrition and diet, , timemanagement techniques may be useful (Pehlivan, 1995). Erdo?an (1999) arguesthat as individual strategies in coping with stress, an effective time management,relaxation practices, positive imagination, exercise and body movements,behavioral self-control, communication, meditation, food control and massage,the individual peculiar hobby and outward turn.Conclusion:Stressat every stage of life is defined as an intrinsic reaction to the situationthat people perceive as a threat or difficulty. Stress is the result ofinteraction with the outside world, sometimes as a result of time pressures,sometimes as an unexpected response or as a result of events, as well asfactors related to one’s inner world (Kara, 2009).
Stress is an inseparablepart of our life. In order to be able to move human life to a higher quality,higher standards in every respect, it is necessary to learn how to cope withstress effectively and to cope effectively (Balta?, 1996). Stress,the helplessness of the person and the way out is the reaction that emotionsand body associations reveal. There are many definitions in the literature onthe concept of stress. Stress was unknown to the community in the 1950s and inthe 1970s many people began to worry about the harmful effects of stress.Stress was defined as a disease of the twentieth century by the United Nationsin the 1990s as an epidemic of ten years by the Time Magazine in the 1980s(Krohe, 1999: 36). Stress, like many of us know, forces, restricts and preventsevents,it is all the reactionswe have to the situations.
The type and source of these reactions can vary fromindividual to individual. As the concept of stress is sometimes misinterpreted;it is not limited to the pressure and strain only felt. Stress in dictionarymeaning; “14. in the sense of difficulty, hardship, bad luck in thecentury “; In the 17th century, “disaster, trouble, trouble, grief”. In the 18th and 19th centuries the concept of meaning has changed; Ithas been used as a force for the person, organ or spiritual structure dependingon the situation and objects in the meaning like “power, pressure,hard” (Weiss, 1993).
Manyenvironmental factors in stress formation play a role and stressful environmentform. Today, employees and managers work in highly competitive, variable,uncertain and even ambiguous business environments. Especially when thestressing factors are due to the fact that the managers and employees can notcontrol it, and because of the other, close and general environmentalconditions, the managers and employees are having difficulties inself-sacrificing and adapting to these environments.Stressmust be dealt with effectively. There is no common solution to the stress thatis good for everyone.
Each person has a weak point, which is weak when it isconstantly exposed to stress. Therefore, one must find and try methods that areappropriate for his personality and lifestyle. In other words, the individualshould handle the management of stress. References:Balta?, Acar ve ZühalBalta?. Stres ve Ba?a Ç?kma Yollar?. ?stanbul: Remzi Kitabevi, 1999.Balc?, Ali. Ö?retimElemanlar?n?n ?? Stresi.
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