Abstract—SmartGrid represents the future of the existing power grid. A SG system is a lesscentralized and more interactive version of the current grid system. In such asystem, a communication network is integrated within the power grid to collectreal time information that can be used to locate power failures, re-routeelectricity, reduce power consumption among other numerous advantages. Owing to this, therehas been a substantial interest in the design, development and implementationof an efficient network connecting various sections of the Smart Grid.
SmartGrid Networks are large scale with limited node capabilities which make themunique networks that present various challenges in routing. A Smart Gridcommunications network consists of different constituents such as Home AreaNetworks or HAN’s, Neighborhood Area Networks or NAN’s and Wide Area Network orWAN’s. This paper provides a survey of the various challenges faced whiledesigning such a Smart Grid network and analyzes the advantages anddisadvantages of the routing protocols proposed to address these challenges.This paper hopes to provide comprehension to beginners who would like to seekrouting related research opportunities in the Smart Grid domain.IndexTerms—Smart Grid, Networking HANs, NANs, WANs. I. IntroductionOne of the key components of our daily life is theelectrical power system.
Presently though, this electrical power grid hasnumerous concerns that have to be fixed. In the last 10 years, more voltagedrops, overloads and blackouts have occurred than the last 4 decades. Moreoften than not, the reason behind these problems are slow responding devicesover the grid. Not only has population and hence the number of devices incustomer’s houses and buildings increased, there has been no significant improvementto the current grid system. The current grid system is not only old, but it hasalso worn out. This addition of appliances to an old and worn out power grid onlymakes it more unstable. To make it worst, the current electrical grid wins nofavor when it comes to carbon emissions. The U.
S.’ power system contributes foraround 40% of the total carbon emission of the country 1. Modifications tosuch an imbalanced and incompetent power system is must for both economical andenvironment reasons. The grid should be reliable, controllable and scalablealong with being interoperable, secure and economical. Such a grid is widelyregarded as a Smart Grid.
Two main impetuses to push towards Smarty Grid are 1) thematuring, deficient, and obsolete power grid which has to be enhanced to takecare without bounds, the forthcoming demands and challenges, 2) the advantagesof the Smart Grid in result of the upgrades in six key esteem zones: unwaveringquality, financial aspects, productivity, environmental, security, and safety. SmartGrid ought to be planned and actualized so as to boost the system’s throughput andto diminish utilization of the system. In addition, Smart Grid communicationhas to be real-time, reliable, adaptable, reasonable, and extensible, alongwith being interoperable, secure, and economical. Smart Grids can provideenergy feedback paired with real-time cost data to better energy usage levels.Smart Grids can also provide real-time requirements and administration strategiesto lower peak demand and total load via device control.
One of the most crucial aspect behind the motivation forthe Smart Grid is the ability to incorporate innate two-way communicationbetween different parts of the power system, sensors and control technologiesinto the electrical grid system. A telecommunication network like The Internetroutes data packets whereas the power grid routes electrical power. So, a SmartGrid architecture has to embody both telecommunication and power facets in itsimplementation. For example, utilities can gather, measure and break downenergy utilization data using Advanced Metering Infrastructure. Power loads andhence the costs can be regulated by Demand Response using the Advanced MeteringInfrastructure. Because of these changes, the accompanying advantages are projected:1) a decline in the frequency and duration of blackouts 2) a diminishmentin the quantity of interruptions because of power quality issues3) bring down power cost4) bring down operation and maintenance expenses5) better resource usage6) bring down CO2emissions because of the increase in number of electric vehicles7) an expansionin physical security and digital security in the entire electrical grid systems8) an increment in the protection from electricity hazards.Even though there is an expanding attention forrecognizing the parts of the Smart Grid and conceivable applications, we arestill to illustrate particular research challenges at every protocol layer. Toenable network interconnectivity between HANs, NANs and WANs, multiple significantquestions must be answered.
For example, Smart Grid will be made up of multiplenetworks which will be interconnected with each other and almost all of thesenetworks will have a diverse set of core technologies, proprietorship and administration.The Smart Grid will be needed to be reliable and accessible as well as becapable to protect private data like amount of power consumption of everyhousehold. In this paper, variouschallenges faced while designing such a Smart Grid network and analysis of theadvantages and disadvantages of the routing protocols proposed to address thesechallenges is discussed. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: SectionII discusses the background of the Smart Grid, Section III discusses theapplications of Smart Grids and the challenges for Smart Grid communications,Section IV elaborates the communication and networking architecture of theSmart Grid and Section V provides a few concluding observations. II.
BackgroundThe power grids of today produce and dispense electricityusing three tiered and definite subsystems, which are production, transmissionand delivery. Firstly, power generation plants produce electricity fromdifferent resources. Step up transformers are used to convert this generatedelectricity at a high voltage which is suitable for long distance transmissionat the transmission substations.
Once this electricity reaches the distributionsubstations, it is stepped-down to medium voltage and transmitted to the endusers over the grid. Finally, the medium voltage is changed to low voltage byagain stepping down. This straightforward movement of electricity in the powergrid has not been altered for slightly more than a hundred years. The electric grid used to be nothing but a collection of fewremote power plants. This has been converted into interconnected grids. Thepresent electric transmission grids provide several unneeded alternate pathsfor electric flow by being interconnected into regional or national powergrids. These paths are used as alternate routes in case of uneven supply anddemand, or in case of generation plants/ transmission line failures. Electricity distribution is done centrally, via a controlcenter that has the duty of governing several regions from a central location.
The control center uses Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)system. SCADA is a computer-based monitoring and control system. SCADA systems measure,supervise and regulate the components of the power grid.
For this, they haveseveral electronic monitoring and/or control devices. They also have variousautomation equipment. SCADA systems, which later grew onto the EnergyManagement System (EMS), first came into existence after the major blackout in1965. To assist the EMS by gathering real-time data, Remote Terminal Units(RTU) are deployed at transmission and distribution substations. And so, theproduction and distribution parts of the present power grid are rather “smart”,but the control centers still don’t have enough automation. Since the 90’s,some real-time monitoring capabilities have been introduced to assist withdistribution.
Some examples of these works are the AMR and AMI applications.But these technologies are not yet widely implemented on the power grid and arerestricted locally. In today’s grids, the methods of power storage are highlyinefficient. This forces the supply to keep up with the demand, resulting in aconstraint without a moment to spare. Hence, the entire operation of the powergrid is inept. Also, the request variations strain the maturing and obsoleteframework of the power network amid the pinnacle request hours and consequentlyposture dependability, accessibility, and power quality issues. The presentpower production, owing to its dependence on non-renewable sources of energyhas environmental and asset shortage issues.
Toxic gases are emitted by notonly vehicles but also during the production of electricity. These factors lead to the need of a smartergrid so as to make the power grid more dependable, cost-effective, effective, eco-friendly,secure and safe.In general, the Smart Grid is a power grid that introducesa two-way dialogue where electricity and information is exchanged betweenutility and its customers.Smart Grid may have emerged from the current power grid,but it has a wide variety of different features and requirements which must bemet. The integrated requirements of a preferred Smart Grid are:1) AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure): AMI helpscustomers become informed participants by informing them the real-time pricesof power and augment power usage appropriately. Owing to this, consumers cannow pick diverse acquiring patterns based on not only their individual needs,but also the Grid’s demand. This can greatly ensure the reliability of theelectric power system.
?2) Wide Area Situational Awareness: WASA is envisionedto observe and manage all the sections of the electric power system. Forexample, network routes can be modified to avoid a damaged path. 3) IT Network Integration: The Smart Grid will have powergrids integrated with IT networks. ?4) Interoperability: The Smart Grid is envisioned tohave the ability of multiple systems, frameworks, gadgets, applications, orparts to trade and promptly utilize data safely, successfully, and with almostno bother to the client. The Smart Grid will be an arrangement of interoperablesystems. That is, diverse frameworks will have the capacity to trade important,noteworthy data.
The systems will share a typical significance of the tradeddata, and this data will inspire heaps of reactions. The unwavering quality,constancy, and security of data trades among Smart Grid systems must accomplishimperative execution levels 2.5) Demand Response and Consumer Efficiency: Utilitiesand clients will cut their utilization amid peak hours of energy request.Systems will likewise be made for customers to shrewdly utilize their gadgetsto bring down their cost 2. So, we can presumethat Smart Grid will have the qualities of being more effective, solid, smart,and so forth. There are many difficulties and regarding communications in SmartGrid. Basically, there is a push to make the power production and utilizationmore adaptable, to permit dynamic costs, the accumulation of power from small,reusable power generators, et cetera. To execute this, the electric grid shouldbe upgraded with communication and calculation devices.
In addition, with coordinatingdata systems into the present power network framework will come numeroussecurity and protection issues which must be tended to. Clear vulnerabilitiesare presented by IT systems. For instance, programmers can take clients’ powerwith no traces being left in their metering devices.