2. Machiavelli’s separation of politics from ethics and assigning it an autonomous sphere is another contribution. Prior to him politics was considered the hand maid of ethics. 3. Machiavelli is the first to bring the aspect of realism in politics. Prior to him normative dominated the political thinking. 4.

Machiavelli’s advocacy of power politics is another contribution that has been followed widely in the realm of international relations. Perhaps no nation can afford to rely exclusively on idealism. 5. Machiavelli’s method of history combined with commonsense observation has remained pragmatic till now.

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6. Machiavelli’s denouncement of Church and its interference in the state places him as the first secular thinker. 7. Machiavelli’s analysis of role of the state to offer security of its citizens remains pragmatic as ever.

8. Machiavelli’s republican spirit (service to the nation) has been celebrated by nationalists of all ranks. 9. Machiavelli’s suggestion to the prince signifies eyesight of political psychologist. Every theorist in modern time seeks to base his argument on the basis of motivation and orientation of human beings towards political objects. Under this background one cannot refuse to agree with Prof.

Dunning that “Machiavelli was the first modern political philosopher”. He was indeed an intellectual manifesting the cross currents of Renaissance and Reformation and Scientific outlook.