Co-ordination does not arise spontaneously or by force. It is the result of conscious and concerted action by management. d. The heart of co-ordination is the unity of purpose which involves fixing the time and manner of performing various activities.

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e. Co-ordination is a continuous or on-going process. It is also a dynamic process. f. Co-ordination is required in group efforts not in individual effort. It involves the orderly pattern of group efforts.

There is no need for co-ordination when an individual works in isolation without affecting anyone’s functioning. g. Co-ordination is the responsibility of each and every manager. h.

Co-ordination has a common purpose of getting organisational objectives accomplished. According to Allen, “A manager in managing must co-ordinate the work for which he is accountable by balancing, timing and integrating.” Thus, balancing, timing and integrating are the three elements of co-ordination. Balancing is ensuring that enough of one thing is available to support or counterbalance the other. It implies creating a balance between the resources of different departments and individuals.

Timing means adjusting the time schedules of different activities so that they support and reinforce each other. Integrating involves unification of the diverse interests under the common purpose.