The role of education in outlining political behaviour has been universally accepted. As Almond and Verba observe “the more extensive an individual’s education, the more likely he is to be aware of the impact of government, to follow politics, to have more political information, to possess a wider range of opinion on political matters, to engage in political discussion with a wider range of people.”

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3. Peer Group:

In the peer groups an individual often gets influences that may reinforce or conflict with early stages of political socialization.

4. Socio-political Institutions:

Under these category comes the role of religion, voluntary organizations, political parties, bureaucracy etc. These institutions mould individual’s political behaviour in different ways.


Mass Media:

Radio, T.V., Press, Internet and other avenues may inculcate different set of values in an individual and accordingly, shape their orientations.

6. Political System:

Prof. Almond and Powell point out “No matter how positive the view of political realm which has been inculcated by family and school, when a citizen is ignored by his party, cheated by his people, starved the bread line, and finally conscripted into the army, his views on the political realm are likely to be altered.” In conclusion, it can be observed that the model of political socialization despite its influences has severe limitations.

It fails to see the economic dimension of societies. It has ethnocentric biases evident in crush for order and stability. Whatever has benefited or withstood with the western societies are molded as general tool for political socialization. The role of community and their relationship with nature hardly finds any mention.