voter has the right to the option of either giving his votes to all, to a few or even to concentrate all his votes just for one candidate. A well organised minority has an opportunity to get at least one of its representatives elected by cumulating all its votes in favour of its own candidate. It used in educational institutions and for local bodies in Great Britain and U.

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2. Limited Vote System:

Involves multi member constituencies: Voter has certain number of votes which is less than the number of seats to be filled This system acts as a check on the monopolization of representation in a constituency by a single political body and helps minority to get at least one seat.


Communal Representation:

Separate electorate for separate communities. A second method is reservation of seats in joint electorate: the voter may cast votes for the candidates of communities other than their own. But in deciding the result, a member of community who gets the highest number of votes among candidates of that community will be elected.

4. Instructed Representation:

Advocated by Bentham & James Mill To them unless the legislators elected by the poorer classes are bound to their wishes by a pledge, the interests and demands of the poorer classes will never be fairly represented. J.S. Mill however completely discarded the idea and agreed with Burke.

5. Concurrent Majority:

Advocated by John, C. Colhon It means that any decision should be treated as valid only when due concurrence of all the important sectional interests affected by it has been obtained.

Its implications are veto power in UN and EEC.

6. Coalitional Democracy:

It is regarded particularly suitable for the governance of the societies which are deeply divided by religious, ideological, linguistic, regional etc. differences. It involves four basic principles, which are of primary importance. 1. Executive power sharing: means grand coalition of the representatives of all significant segments.

2. Greater autonomy to different segments: federalism. 3. Proportionality: allocation of political offices, administrative appointments and public funds on the basis of population of each segment.

4. Exercise of veto by minority.