(1) intensive cultivation, (2) incentives to agriculturists, (3) increased use of fertilisers, improved varieties of seeds and the introduction of latest methods of cultivation, (4) introduction of land-reform measures, (5) support to food prices, (6) agricultural research to be interlinked with the immediate needs of the farmer, (7) increased irrigation facilities.
It is the chief food crop of India. The chief rice-growing states are West Bengal, U.P., Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh and Haryana. It is also grown in several other parts of India. Due to Japanese method of rice cultivation the production of rice has increased, but even then India is just self-sufficient in rice. In 1951, the rice production was only 20.6 million tonnes.
India is now in a position to export basmati rice to the Gulf and other, countries. In rice improvement programme three new varieties (Jawahar Rice 3-45, VL Dhan 61 and Triguna) were released for various agro-ecological situations in different states).
China, India, Japan, Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are the chief rice-producing countries.
It is the second in importance to rice in India. It is the staple diet of the people of Punjab, Haryana and U.P. It is largely grown in Punjab, Haryana, West U.P., Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Total area under wheat in the Indian Union is over 2.5 crore hectares. The of Mexican wheat has been introduced and this has led to increased yield (four to five times) per hectare.
Punjab and Haryana have increased their wheat production considerably on account of better seeds. In 1951, the wheat production was only 6.5 million tonnes. India has now comfortable stocks of wheat and can export the same. During 2003-04, India surpassed the U.S.A. in wheat production and reached second position after China without increase in the area.
3. Millets (Jowar and Bajra):
These are largely grown in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, U P., Haryana and the dry areas of Andhra. It forms the staple food of the poor. It thrives best in hot and dry climate with moderate rainfall at intervals.
It is used as food grain and also for preparing beer. The main barley growing states are U.P., Punjab and Haryana. Three new varieties Malty, Ritambhara and Haritma were released.
It grows more or less all over India but chiefly in Bihar, U.P. Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Gujarat. U.S.A., Rumania and other Balkan States, Russia also produces large quantities of maize.
These are grown in different parts of India, especially in Punjab, U P., M.P., Bengal, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The per capita availability of pulses has been gradually declining on account of the serious shortfalls in production. India has imported pulses in the past in order to augment supplies. This is despite the fact that the country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops.