1. Creation of Money Economy:

It ensured secure and regular salaries to the bureaucrats leading to a permanent organization.

2. Emergence of Capitalist Economy:

The prime principles of capitalism—rationality— dictates bureaucratic form of organization.

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3. Growth of Population:

It dictates larger organizations having tendency of assuming bureaucratic form.

4. Development of modern means of Communication.

5. Emergence of Complex administrative problems:

It required expertise and competence in the organization favoring bureaucracy.

6. Growth of Democratic Institutions:

The downfall of feudal elements and encourage­ment of merit based system of functional rationality dictated bureaucratic organizations.

Characteristic of Bureaucracy

1. Structural:

(a) Division of work.

(b) Hierarchy.

(c) System of rules.

2. Behavioral:

(a) Rationality.

(b) Impersonality.

(c) Rule orientation.

(d) Neutrality.

Karl Marx developed his views on bureaucracy in his confrontation with the Prussian state. In his ‘Rheinische Zetung’ he denounced the bureaucracy as a smoke screen between the exploiters and exploited. It served as an instrument of dominant class for the exploitation of the dependent class.

It was an instrument of class rule at the hands of the bourgeoisie. He did not favored its retention in a socialist’ stage. In the communist society, social and economic inequality will be eliminated, class difference will be resolved and there won’t be a need for this institution.