1. The first argument is not factual. The most modern theory in science is the theory of relativity. All the conclusions of science are mere probabilities, not definite facts. As Hume has indicated, a conclusion can either be factual or necessary. Conclusion drawn by scientists are factual, thus they are not necessary.
They are only probable. Similarly, Hume has disproved the necessary nature of inductive conclusions. If we see something coming out of another a number of times we cannot inductively conclude that the second is a cause of the first.
All inductive conclusions are doubtful. These arguments of Hume are so uncontradictable that, according to many scholars, they have never been disproved so far.
2. The second argument is based on the principle of the universality and correctness of the cause-effect relation. But atomic science itself has disproved it Scientist have accepted their inability to discover the cause of indefinite velocity of the electrical particles in the atom.
Even though the freedom of human volition cannot be proved by this failure on the part of science, it still does serve to disprove the deductive argument of the determinists. Besides, the principle that all objects have causes is defective in respect of means and ends. Before the causes of all the objects in the world have been discovered it cannot be said that all objects are caused.
3. The epistemological argument too, has it limits. It is not essential that there may not be knowledge of an object unless its cause is known. The mystics and agnostics believe supreme knowledge to be beyond cause and effect
4. According to the psychological argument mind is the cause of all volition. Undoubtedly, the mind and its desires and hungers play an important part in human activities but, as the author of the Gita has directed, mind is superseded by intellect and intellect by self.
Thus the self can control the mind, by a feeling of disenchantment and practice, and be free in is volition. Determinism is not proved by the congruency of character.
5. Materialism is disproved when causality is disproved. In theism, the belief in God as an existence external to the world has some philosophical difficulties and if, according to the Gita, he is believed to be internally existent then God’s control becomes identical with the control of the self because, he is present in every individual as the self.