(c) Another challenge is applying of standards.
It is mainly because of universality. As there is people of different caste, culture, religion age etc. and particularization of Human rights is the main challenge in implementation Human rights. (d) The distribution of power in international system, increasing chaos, conflicts etc. is main challenge of Human rights. The Human rights system protects human dignity in situation of increasing of confined chaos.
The greatest development in international Human rights has been participant other than states this is hopeful development. Not governmental but non-government played a great and commendable work. At world conference on Human rights in Vienna in 1993 asserted the commitment to goals embodied in international bill of rights. The most significant of the world conference was the participant of thousands of new NGOs form developing countries. These NGOs work for the Human rights advocates all throughout the work and struggle for human dignity.
These NGOs work for maintaining peace, oneness and felling of brotherhood and mean to participate fully in the system. These NGOs understands the conceptual meaning of Human rights and also understands that Human rights education is essential for social, economic political empowerment and make implementation of activities which bring social justice, religious tolerance. They also have planning strategies to fight against and eliminate evils such as corruption, abuse of power and violations of Human rights. Both UNESCO and NGOs work for protection of Human rights and also promote full access to legal system for all sector of society, exchange of experience regarding the development for mechanism at national level for realization of Human rights and implementation of national and international codes of conduct for law enforcement. The setting up of Human rights education cells in schools, college and in other education institution and it further promote the Human rights education fin requirement. This includes, all the teachers’ students parents with Human rights education which make formulation of new knowledge and all teachers Human rights champions students become beneficiaries of Human rights education. NCTE is first responsible open new department of HRE and they will also responsible for preparation of Human rights education in evaluation of projects and in all languages. The UN has played a great role and provides plenty of material of HRE and also assists member’s states.
The NCTE is mainly associated with national commission and state commission on Human rights actively works on HRE. The most powerful NGOs for Human rights education is located in New York. More than 800 NGOs assembled in Vienna declaration and plan for action, to work for promotion of Human rights. This Vienna declaration has 100 of clause. It considers Human rights education essential for promotion and achievement of stable and harmonious relation among communities and for fostering neutral understanding tolerance and peace.
It also make eradication illiteracy, poverty and education help development of personality, create respect for Human rights and fundamental freedom, peace, democracy, social justice also forth in international and regional Human rights instruments and it further strengthening the universal commitment to human rights. The world conference on Human rights call on all state, institution which includes Human rights, humanitarian law, rule of law, social justice democracy and create public information taking particular account of the human needs of women. The international league of Human rights utilizes its full consultative status at the United Nation in prevent torture, execution while defend freedom of speech expression, thought, right of women and children. It create respect for human dignity, fundamental freedom, Human rights, democracy, social justice and which further strengthening peace, unity feeling of oneness, brotherhood and loving their own nation and secularism. This Human rights really about dignity and has faith in dignity of men. Both democracy and education is interrelated, which further promote human rights.
This education is way of seeing knowing of life and attitude of mind. It further creates goodwill, belief in humanity/feeling of peace, brotherhood and paternity and watches the collective interest of people. It helps in creating knowledge and development of human personality and also develops the spirit of mutual understanding, cooperation and sympathy. This education creates sound foundation of democracy in all walks of life and creates first line of defence. Democracy is government of the people for the people by the people and it is form of government in which everybody have equal share. This share is utilized when each and every individual are fully education. Democracy emphasizes on brotherhood, equal opportunity to receive education and democracy is education for all.
Education is great instrument of social emancipation by which democracy establishes and which further protect the spirit of equality among its member and it help in guidance of adventure. Through education, democratic citizen have clear knowledge of speech, writing and also develop qualities like understanding, tolerance, sacrifices, patience, sympathy, politically aware, patriotism, loyalty, oneness, balance between rights and duties. One can’t think democracy without education.
Different political thinkers like Plato, Aristotle etc. gave their views about education. According to Plato education is positive remedy for operation of justice in his ideal state. Education help in enlightenment of individual as it turn the eyes which the soul already posses to light.
It not only to put knowledge into the soul but to bring best out it. Education according to Plato is a mean which bring social, economic, political development. It is an attempt of mental malady by mental medicine. It brings idea of justice in practice. Aristotle is disciple of Plato and according to him education is the agency through life of nobility high character, disciples can be acquired and bring the forces of goodness, beauty and justice. The main aim of education is virtue and happiness. According to Aristotle, the uneducated person is bundle of desires and so everyone should has right to education, although this rights is expressed in terms of all the education from which individual can profit. Education ultimately directed to intellectual maturity and flowering of soul.
This education as fundamental right for all the people without any discrimination on the bases of sex, religion, language etc. and it create equal opportunity of development and make good and virtuous individual by nature, habit and reason. These are the three aspects of creating good citizen and produced best and balanced personality. The implementation of human rights is necessary precondition for healthy democratic society. It help in the awareness and developing global perspective in protecting form discriminations, raise our voices against abuses of human rights and accepting responsibility and our rights and balanced was create between rights and duties. The main purpose and teaching behind this concept of human rights was to create awareness, impart education, strengthening the respect for human dignity, human rights, fundamental freedom and to achieve the liberty of human mind and spirit. These human rights are an essential mean and bringing about change in human behaviors.
The international covenant on social, economic and cultural rights, gave the view about education that: “Everyone should have a right to receive and impart information about the basic rights and freedom of individual. This is mean to empowerment of individual to participate actively in social and political life. It is continuing process of fostering attitudes to art of thinking and has full knowledge so that they can independently and cooperatively which form real democratic ethos and them fostering respect for human rights and have different qualities like tolerance, understanding, social justice, sacrifice, spirit of dialogue and have reflexes of gender equality.
They have balance between their rights and duties. Through education, all the individual become aware of their rights and also follow their duties no doubt education played a great role in implementation of human rights. But NGOs voluntary organization, government and also from parliamentarian are active and vigilant with regards of human rights. Parliament passed an act, protection act of human rights in 1993, worked for protection of human rights.
Judges are interpreter of law because of habeas corpus unit was moved in Supreme, Rudul Shah was released from jail on Oct. 1982. Judicial activism has widened the scope of public interest litigation. These litigation by petitioning the court. In Indian constitution, there is fundamental rights, which are rights of citizen. Article 32 “Right to constitutional remedies” is enforceable. The right of individual is enforced by law.
If the rights of citizen were violated then he/she has right to go to court and to protect their rights. The civil and political rights of individual were incorporated in Article 12 The economic and social rights are incorporation in (Article 36 to 51). The fundamental duties of citizens are incorporated in Article 51 (A). There is enforcement of fundamental rights is though Supreme Court, central government, state government and it support agencies implement directive principles. The human rights are included in Indian constitution and enforceable by court. By proclaiming universal declaration of human rights and United Nation was want to unit the world human rights are upheld only in democratic structure. The main goals of democracy are to create public opinion. The constitution contain fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties help, judicial decision help public opinion help in safeguarding the democracy and adhere democratic way of life.
In 1992, Mohini Jain case, Supreme Court has declared that right to education is Fundamental Rights. Article 45 of constitution provides that “‘free and compulsory education to children till they completed the age of 14. All these help in protection of rights and the development in all social, economic and political fields. Human rights education appropriate for present in 21stcentury when we hope that education will be aimed at strengthening the respect for Human rights. It is long term strategy with sight set on need for coming generation.
This Human rights education for our future advancement rule of law. The UN General Assembly proclaimed a United Nation decade of Human rights education (1995-2005) Human rights education is unique strategy for “building a universal culture of Human rights” and emphasized that Human rights education involve more that the provisions information but should rather constitute a comprehensive life long process by which people at all level in development and in all state of society learn respect for dignity of other and the means and methods of ensure that respect in all societies. All these declaration, programme for action decade of Human rights education. These efforts serves the catalytic purpose for furthering the educational efforts with respect of human dignity of all without any discrimination on the bases of caste color, creed etc. The comprehensive Human rights education must be pay component of post conflict peace building. In agenda for peace refer to comprehensive effort to identify and support structure which tend consolidate peace and further lead to well being self confidence among people. This comprehensive role played a great role in creating normative frame work respectful of basic Human rights and freedoms and capable of sustaining remedial action in case of basic needs and commitment on the part of international community. For implementation of Human rights preparing teachers to become Human rights educators and addressing the totality of interrelated and independent rights found in visionary’ documents.
This teachers sensitive to human rights should involve following dimensions-explanation and understanding of human rights in identifying as model of Human rights activist everyone to act in accordance with human rights principles, providing opportunity to improve Human rights condition. It creates Human rights ethos in which all the Individual feel valued, respected indicate full commitment to full development of human personality and renew their enthusiasm, build Human rights education network and in such a way democracy has systematically work for generation. The teachers can also nurture and positive practices in social relation, political processes and cultural observation that demonstrate respect for Human rights and dignity and also acknowledge and include diversity in backgrounds. It develops strategies for establishing such environment of respect and dignity and makes a sense of this complex world and finds their role in creating just and human society.