4 Main Parts of the Plant and their FunctionsREPRODUCTION IN PLANTSRoots – take up water andminerals.Stem – takes water from the roots toleaves and gives stability.Leaves – collect sunlight and makesugar out of it.Flower – helps plant to reproduce,attracts bees, and otherinsects for pollination.Plant reproduction is the process by which plants produce new individuals.

2 Kinds of Reproduction in PlantsClassification of flo wers’ sex:a. Sexual Reproductiona. Male flowerb.

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Asexual Reproductionb. Female flowerc. Bisexual or the Hermaphrodite flower• It happens through the flowers.

• It takes in two continuous processes which are the pollination and the fertilization.• It is the creation of offspring by the fusion of gametes.• It contains only androecium or the male reproductive organ.

• Male flowers are unisexual.• It is the creation of offspring without the fusion of gametes.• It contains only gynoecium or the female reproductive organs.• Female flowers are also unisexual.• It contains both the male and female reproductive organs.

Figure 4.4 Diagram of Main Parts of the Plant and their FunctionsPollinationTypes of Pollinationmethods of mix or cross -pollination• It is the transfer of pollen grainsfrom the anthers of a flower to thestigmas of the same flower or toanother flower in the same plant.• It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas ofanother flower in another plant of the same kind.Pollination is the process of transferring pollen grains from the flower anthers to thestigmas. The pollen grains are small cells that formed in the anther inside the pollenchamber. When those grains become mature, the anther splits longitudinally and thepollen grains spread in the air like the dust.The flowers which are pollinated by the air are characterized by theiranthers, they are hanged to be easily opened by the air, and their stigmas arefeathery-like and sticky to catch the pollen grains from the air. The flowers producehuge numbers of pollen grains to compensate what is lost in the air, and theirpollen grains are light in weight and dry to be easily carried by air.

a. Self-pollinationa. Pollination by Airb. Pollination by Insectsc. Artificial Pollinationb. Mix or cross-pollinationPollen grains1.

Pollen comesloose fromstamens.2. A pistil of the sameflower collectspollen.Pollen grains1. Pollen from stamenssticks to a bee as itvisits a flower to collectfood.2.

The bee travels toanother plant of thesame type.3. Pollen on the beesticks to a pistil of aflower on the otherplant.

The flowers pollinated by insects are characterized by: their petals arecolored and scented to attract the insects to feed on its nectar, and their pollengrains are sticky or having coarse surfaces to stick on the insect body.The artificial pollination is carried out by a man. Man has to pollinate thepalm trees to ensure the pollination process as the pollination is difficult to occurby the air or by insects, where the gardener spread the palm tree’s pollen grainsover their female flowers.Figure 4.5 Diagram of Self-PollinationFigure 4.6 Diagram of Mix orCross-Pollination80The Essentials of Natural Farming in Philippine Context Natural Farming Gardening: Management of Plants, Soil, and Water 81