(A) Positive Indices (Development):

(1) State-building or territorial integration. (2) Nation-building or national integration.

(3) Increasing franchise and free and fair elections with large voter turnout. (4) Politicisation or participation of more and more people in political process. (5) Popular participation in decision-making.

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(6) Growing interest articulation by autonomous bodies. (7) Growing interest aggregation by stable and democratic political parties. (8) Freedom of press and growth of mass media agencies. (9) Political and administrative decentralisation. (10) Autonomy of the units of local government.

(11) Expansion of educational facilities. (12) Effective role of legislative bodies and constituency service by the representative. (13) Effective role of quasi-governmental agencies like public undertakings. (14) Role of powerful organisations to oversee the working of public servants (like ombudsman) and redressal of public grievances. (15) Tolerance of dissent and control over anomic movements. (16) Broadening of the social base of political elites. (17) Openness in the working of government and accountability of the rulers to the ruled. (18) Independence of judiciary and existence of rule of law.

(19) Apolitical character of armed forces. (20) Consensual politics implying use of constitutional methods. (21) Neutrality and independence of public services. (22) Secularisation of political culture.

(B) Negative Indices (Decay):

(1) Election rigging and irregularities. (2) Violent protest demonstrations. (3) Anomic disturbances, underground activities and armed attacks. (4) Political defections for selfish gains.

(5) Fragmentation of political parties. (6) Suppression of dissent. (7) Idolisation of the rulers. (8) Glorification of the official ideology. (9) Political assassinations.

(10) Politicisation of armed forces. (11) Commitment of public services to the line of ruling party. (12) Widespread corruption and maladministration. (13) Concentration of powers. (14) Mass arrests.

(15) Foreign interference in domestic matters In this list we can include (a) coups (b) riots and (c) the number of political prisoners held by the state. The study of political development can be conducted by analysing and evaluating these factors. The concept of political development offers a useful means for analysing social change in general and political change in particular. Political development approach has been fruitfully used by a number of contemporary Political scientists. These efforts have produced valuable studies in politics and comparative politics. Comparing of political systems in terms of political development is indeed an interesting and potentially useful field of investigation.