1. The Reward Method:
Reward method is considered as better than punishment method. Rewards encourage the child to form good habits.
It is a positive approach. Hence it has a salutary effect on the child. Punishment is a negative course and it creates fear in the child. So its frequent use is not desirable. We have to be careful in the reward method also. Its form should not be only material, otherwise the child may get into the habit of obtaining something in view of some good performance. The social and spiritual nature of reward is better. Praise and affection is a social form of regard.
The feeling of self-satisfaction after doing something good is a spiritual form of reward. If one forms the habit of doing good things only for the sake of self-satisfaction, he will reach the zenith of his growth and he will become an ideal person and his socialization will be of an exemplary type. All the great persons of the world perform good deeds only for self-satisfaction, and not for any material gains.
Punishment method is not good for providing desirable socialization. But sometimes, this method has to be used. The parents and other elders in the family and the teacher in the school sometimes feel compelled to punish the child. But if punishments become necessary, then we must know that its form should not be only physical. Bitter criticism, censure and withdrawal of conveniences may also be some forms of punishment. In fact, the nature and form of punishment has to be determined according to the age and the nature of undesirable behavior shown by the child. Punishment should be such that the child himself understands its propriety and justice. Punishment must never be given as a revenge or self-satisfaction (of the giver).
The purpose of punishment should be to effect the desirable change in behavior. Before giving any punishment the nature and cause of the undesirable behavior must be ascertained. In this type of ascertaining, sometimes the child may be found innocent thus the parents and the teacher will be saved from punishing the child in a fit of anger. If we keep all the above points in view, the socialization of die child will go on satisfactorily.