It is caused by virus. The onset is sudden, with headache and backache followed by vomiting, fever and running of the nose. Eruption on the skin, small red pimples becomes pocks on the third day. Scabs fall on the 14th day leaving behind pits or scars on the skin. Has since been eliminated.

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Preventive measures: 1. Vaccination in infancy and every seven years. 2. Isolation of the sick. 3. Thorough disinfection of rooms.


It is caused by cholera vibrio. Characterised by passing copious colourless stools and also vomiting, pain in legs and back, cramps, suppression of urine and collapse.

Essential measures for protection: 1. Cholera vaccination. 2. Pure water supply and clean food. 3. Careful disinfection of all clothing, etc. 4. Efficient conservancy and disinfection of stools and vomited matter. 5. Banishment of flies. 6. The sale of raw or over-ripe fruits should be forbidden.

The infection is carried through: 1. Water used for drinking. 2. Adulteration of milk with infected water, and also through indigestion, exposure to chill, remaining empty stomach for long and eating unripe or over­ripe fruits are the predisposing causes of the disease.


Cause: Toxin secreted by bacillus tetanus which lives on soil and dust.

Prevention: Injection of anti-toxic serum soon after one is injured.

Cure: Anti-tetanus injections.


Causes: Bite of female anopheles mosquito. Malarial parasites (protozoa) enter red-blood corpuscles where they multiply till the red blood corpuscles burst. The process is repeated.

Symptoms: The important symptoms are: repeated attacks of fever with shivering and a feeling of cold, and its going away with sweating. If untreated, repeated attacks lead to enlargement of spleen, anaemia or bloodlessness, pigmentation of the face and general weakness.

As the disease is spread through the agency of the mosquito, we have only to take preventive and defensive measures against this insect. Filling the pits with earth or drainage of ponds and pools, or sprinkling kerosene oil or spraying DDT into stagnant pools of water, certain kinds of fish are the best preventive measures.

Full grown mosquitoes can be killed by cresol vapours or D.D.T. spray. Use of mosquito-nets or mosquito cream is defensive measures. Use of paludrine, atebrine, or quinine is preventive medicines.


It is caused by the bite of a male mosquito it generally occurs in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and practically all those places with poor drainage. It is said that in India only the States of Rajasthan and Punjab and Haryana do not have the incidence of this disease.

Other important diseases carried through the bites of insects are:—


By bite of bed bug.

Cure. Injection of tartar emetic.

African sleeping sickness:

By Tse-tse fly.

American yellow fever. By the bite of Culex mosquito.


Cause: Inability of pancreas to secrete sufficient insulin to make use of sugar in the food.

Curie: Regular injections of insulin; control of diet, avoid sugar and use saccharine instead.


Cause: Typhoid bacillus. Infection conveyed mostly through water or milk.

Symptoms: Fever rising very rapidly, tenderness of abdomen and constipation or diarrhoea.

Cure: Proper disinfection of clothes and utensils: complete rest as intestines are infected; use ice cap on the head in high fever.

Prophylactic inoculation of an emulsion of dead enteric germs gives immunity against it for one year.

Common Cold:

Condition of inflammation of upper respiratory tract.

Symptoms: Burning sensation, pain and running of the nose, headache, ache in the back and limbs, shivering and slight temperature. If persistent, it may lead to bronchitis, laryngitis, pneumonia and even pulmonary tuberculosis.

Prevention: Avoidance of crowded places, suitable clothing, regular and healthy diet and keeping away from dust.


An infection of gums which causes edges of the tooth sockets to bleed easily. In later stages, there is constant discharge of pus.

Scarlet fever:

The infection spreads by breath and secretions of the nose, mouth and throat. The onset is sudden with shivering, vomiting and sore throat. The cheeks become flushed, and there is marked pale circle round the mouth. The temperature is high.

Preventive measures include early diagnosis, isolation and search for carriers. Incubation period is one week.


The swelling of the salivary glands in front of the ears which makes the face look dull. Fluid diet and rest in bed is the best cure.

Symptoms: Headache, sore throat and shivering, weakness, delirium. Its after-effects are mental disor­ders.

Typhus or ‘jail fever’. Overcrowding, poverty and bad hygiene are the main causes. It is caused by a virus carried by lice. It is followed by abnormal rise of temperature, and there is no specific treatment.

Rabies or Hydrophobia:

A disease caused by the bite of a mad dog, cat or jackal. There is no cure, until the symptoms have developed. The best treatment is inoculation invented by Louis Pasteur.


It is a children’s disease, which causes the inflammation of the throat. It is highly infec­tious, and the best way to fight it is to immunise the children by diphtheria vaccine.


Infantile paralysis. It is virus infection of the nerves of movement. Usually the muscles affected are those of legs or arms, but if the breathing organs are affected, the results are disastrous. Polio begins with sore throat, fever and sometimes vomiting. Salk vaccine prevents infection.


It means inflammation of the meaning. It generally attacks children and the symptoms are headache, vomiting and high fever, there is pain in the back as well as in the legs, and there is stiffness of the neck; sulphate drugs are the best treatment.


This is an infection of the brain caused by a virus.


Headache, sore throat and shivering. The patient is likely to become delinquent, and he shows signs of violence.