Different characteristics produced in an individual of the same species by sexual reproduction.

iii. Gene:

A unit of inheritance which is passed from parents to the offsprings via chromosomes. Gene is the smallest unit capable of recombination or of mutation or of controlling the expression of a specific character.

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iv. Homologous Chromosomes:

A pair of corresponding chromosomes of the same size and shape, one from each parent.

v. Alleles:

Alleles are alternating molecular forms of a gene or a pair of matching genes affecting the same characteristic but in two different ways.

vi. Dominant Allele:

A super ruling allele that masks any phenotypic effect of any recessive allele paired with it.

vii. Recessive Allele:

In heterozygous condition, an allele who cannot express fully or partially in presence of other allele.

viii. Homozygous Condition:

A condition in which a pair of homologous chromosomes carries identical (similar) alleles of a gene for a particular character.

ix. Heterozygous Condition:

A condition in which a pair of chromosomes carries non-identical (dissimilar) alleles for a particular character.

x. Character:

Any heritable feature is called a character.

xi. Traits:

The alternative forms of a character are called traits.

xii. Genotype:

The genetic constitution of an organism.

xiii. Phenotype:

Externally visible expression of genes, which is an inherited feature in an individual’s appearance.

xiv. Mutation:

Sudden change in one or more genes or in the number and structure of chromosomes in the progeny that had not existed in the parents.