Different characteristics produced in an individual of the same species by sexual reproduction.
A unit of inheritance which is passed from parents to the offsprings via chromosomes. Gene is the smallest unit capable of recombination or of mutation or of controlling the expression of a specific character.
iv. Homologous Chromosomes:
A pair of corresponding chromosomes of the same size and shape, one from each parent.
Alleles are alternating molecular forms of a gene or a pair of matching genes affecting the same characteristic but in two different ways.
vi. Dominant Allele:
A super ruling allele that masks any phenotypic effect of any recessive allele paired with it.
vii. Recessive Allele:
In heterozygous condition, an allele who cannot express fully or partially in presence of other allele.
viii. Homozygous Condition:
A condition in which a pair of homologous chromosomes carries identical (similar) alleles of a gene for a particular character.
ix. Heterozygous Condition:
A condition in which a pair of chromosomes carries non-identical (dissimilar) alleles for a particular character.
Any heritable feature is called a character.
The alternative forms of a character are called traits.
The genetic constitution of an organism.
Externally visible expression of genes, which is an inherited feature in an individual’s appearance.
Sudden change in one or more genes or in the number and structure of chromosomes in the progeny that had not existed in the parents.