(ii) Many Dalits wear western clothes as they considered as a political statement of self-respect.
(iii) Sarojini Naidu and Kamla Nehru wore coloured sarees.
(iv) Many do not wear khadi as it was costly.
2. “The king had enough on for both of us”, said Mahatma Gandhi to a journalist in England.
(i) What was this in response to?
(ii) What kind of dress had Gandhiji adopted?
(iii) Why had he chosen to do so?
(i) When Gandhiji was asked by a journalist in England on his visit to Buckingham Palace whether he was wearing enough clothes to go before the King.
(ii) Gandhiji had adopted the dress of the poorest peasant-a loin cloth and a chadar made of white coarse homespun khadi.
(iii) (a) He chose khadi as a symbol of purity, simplicity and poverty.
(b) It was also a symbol of nationalism a rejection of Western mill-made cloth and of self reliance.
(c) He wanted to identify himself with the poorest Indi
(d) He believed it removed religious and class differences
3. How are styles of clothing related to the image of women in the Victorian England?
(i) tightly laced stays.
(ii) Since they both constrict air and eventually are fatal.
(iii) Docile, dutiful, submissive, obedient, frail.
(iv) Could bear pain and suffering-tightly laced up in corsets and dressed in stays.
(v) Small waited women were admired-clothing restricted the growth of the body, contained them in small moulds, tight fitting corsets, tightly laced.
4. “From about 1294 to the time of the French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow what were known as ‘sumptuary laws’. The laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors, preventing them from wearing certain clothes.”
(i) Name any four materials that classes other than royalty were not permitted to wear.
(ii) What changes in clothing are symbolic of the French revolution?
(iii) How was the idea of equality expressed through clothing after the Revolution?
(i) Ermine and fur, silk velvet, brocade.
(ii) (a) Members of the Jacobin club started to wear long trousers and to be known as sans culottes or without knee breeches.
(b) Men and women began wearing clothing that was loose and comfortable.
(c) Colours of France-blue, red and white became symbols of patriotism. Red cap of liberty, the cockade pinned on the hat and long trousers were political symbols.
(iii) Simplicity of clothing was a sign of equality.
5. Why and how did Mahatma Gandhi experiment with changes in clothing?
(i) As a young boy, Mahatma Gandhi wore a shirt with a dhoti or pyjama and sometimes a coat. When he went to study law in London he dressed in western suits.
(ii) Deciding that dressing was a powerful political statement. Gandhiji appeared in Durban in 1913 clad in a lungi and kurta. He also shaved his head as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners.
(iii) In 1915, he decided to dress like a Kathiawadi peasant. In 1921, he decided to adopt the short dhoti, a form of dress he wore till his death. He consciously rejected the well-known clothes of the Indian ascetic and adopted the dress of the poorest Indian.
(iv) Khadi to him was a sign of purity, simplicity and poverty. Wearing it became a symbol of Nationalism and a rejection of western mill-made cloth.
(v) He wore the short dhoti without a shirt when he went to England for the Round Table Conference in 1931. He refused to compromise and wore it even before King George at Buckingham Palace.
6. Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes.
The European dress codes were quite different from the Indian dress codes which sometimes led to some maunders standings and conflicts. There are many examples to show these conflicts and misunderstanding:
(i) The first example is that of the use of the turban and the hat. According to western traditions hat had to remove before social superiors as a sign of respect. But in India, the turban was not just for protection from the heat, it was also a sign of respectability an8 could not be removed at will.
The British felt offended if the Indians did not take off their turbans when they met British officials.
(ii) The second example concerning the clash of European and Indian dress codes is linked with the use of shoes. When the British established their rule in India, they insisted that the Indians should take off their shoes as a sign of respect to the British officials.
Many Indians, especially government servants, were increasingly uncomfortable with such rule. It was after a good deal of efforts that ultimately, the Indians were permitted to enter courtroom with their shoes on.
7. Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a ‘Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer’ now posing as a ‘half-naked-fakir’. What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhi’s dress?
Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of England, made these sarcastic remarks about Mahatma Gandhi, somewhat out of jealousy and false pride.
He tried to downgrade Mahatma Gandhi by telling the people that he was a seditious man because at one time while practising as a lawyer in India as well as in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi continued wearing western clothes but after launching the Non-cooperation Movement, he adopted a loin cloth and a chaddar to cover his body. For Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi posed as a half-naked fakir.
Winston Churchill could not understand Mahatma Gandhi’s depth and the great love for his countrymen who could not afford full clothes for their body. Khadi for him was a sign of simplicity, purity and of poverty. Wearing it became a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of western mill-made cloth.
He wore the short dhoti without a shirt when he went to England to attend the Second Round Table Conference. He met King George in his Buckingham Palace in the same dress- -a dhoti without a shirt.
Winston Churchill could not understand the great determination and sacrifice and patriotism of Mahatma Gandhi and the great love for his countrymen. He failed to see the ‘Mahatma’ in Gandhi.
8. “It looked good, but I felt ticklish wearing it. I look it off, folded it carefully and brimming with enthusiasm, showed it to my mother. She gave me a stem look and said, “Where are you going to gallivant in this? Fold it and keep it in the box.”
(i) Which item of clothing is being referred to?
(ii) When did the warning of this item of clothing lead to conflict?
(iii) What was the existing practice in India at that time?
(i) The blouse
(ii) When in the State of Travancore Shanar women converts to Christianity wore tailored blouses and clothes to cover their upper bodies. The upper castle Nairs attacked these women in public places and tore off their blouses.
(iii) Not to wear a stitched garment to cover the upper body.
9 “The caste system clearly defined what subordinate and dominant caste Hindus should wear and these codes have the force of law”
(a) Who were the Shanars?
(b) What were the restrictions imposed on them?
(c) What were the consequences when they defied the existing code?
(a) The Shanars were a community of today tappers in Travancore who were considered a subordinate caste.
(b) (i) they were prohibited from using umbrellas, wearing shoes or golden ornaments,
(ii) Men and women were not allowed to cover their upper bodies.
(c) The upper caste Nairs attacked the women who wore blouses in public places and tore off their upper cloths. The Travancore government issued a proclamation ordering Shanar women to abstain from covering upper parts of their body.
10. Who were Dhangars? Why were they continuously on the move?
The Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.
They were continuously on the move in search of pasture for their cattle. They lived in a semi- arid region with law rainfall and poor soil. Only bajra could be sown here. After harvesting their bajra in October, they moved westwards to the Konkan region.
11. What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive?
(i) they needed to calculate the timing of their movements and ensure that they could move through different territories.
(ii) They also had to forge a relationship with farmers on the way so that they could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil.
(iii) They also had to combine a range of different activities – cultivation, trade and herding – to make their living
12. How did the various laws passed by the British affect the Indian Pastoralists?
(i) The various laws led to a serious shortage of pastures. The shepherds and cattle herders could no longer freely pasture their cattle in the forests.
(ii) Their grazing land declined. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pasture.
(iii) Under the forests acts, the pastorals were not allowed to have access in reserved forests. However, they were granted some ‘ grazing rights’ in the forests.
(iv) This is turn led to a further shortage of forage for animals and deterioration of animals’ stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.
13. (A) Name four pastoral communities of Africa.
(B) Where are they to be found?
(C) What are their occupations?
(A) The Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai and Turkana were some of the pastoral communities of Africa.
(B) Most of them are to be found in semi-arid grasslands of arid deserts where rain-fed agriculture is difficult.
(C) They raise cattle, camels; goats etc. and sell their products like milk and meat. Others earn their living through trade and transport. Some combine pastoral activity with agriculture while still others did a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre earnings.
14. What restrictions were imposed by the colonial government on the African Pastoralists?
(i) The various pastoral group were forced to live in special reserves. They were not allowed to move their stock without special permits which were not easy to get. Those who defied the rules were severely punished.
Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the markets of white areas. In many regions, they were prohibited from participating in any trading activity.
Europeans viewed pastoralists as being savage and dangerous. They wanted to avoid all contact with them. But cutting off all links was not possible as the colonists had to depend on black labour to bore mines and build roads and towns. Thus, the restrictions imposed on the pastoralists adversely affected their pastoral and trading activities.
15. Give three reasons to explain why the nomadic tribes needed to move from one place to another?
(i) Nomadic tribes moved from one place to another in search of pastures for their cattle.
(ii) They sought to make the most effective use of the available pastures in different places.
(iii) When the pasture was exhausted or unusable in one plane, they moved their herds and flocks to new places. This continuous movement allowed to pastures to recover and prevented their overuse.
16. What are the difference between the pastoralists in the mountain of India and those of the plateaus?
The pastoralists of the mountains move annually between their winter and summer grazing grounds. In winter when the high mountains are covered with snow they live with their herds in the low hills. In summer they move up to the, mountains where the grasses are in lush. They mostly herd sheep and goats.
The movement of the pastoralists of the plateaus is not defined by the cold and snow but the alternation of the monsoon and dry seasons. In the dry seasons they move to the coastal tracts and when the rains come they shift back to the plateau. They herd cattle also.
17. When the colonial government put so many hurdles in the way of pastoralists – by passing Wasteland Rules, Forest Acts, Criminal Tribes Act and Grazing Tax etc. How did the pastoralists cope with these changes?
By passing different acts like the Wasteland Rules, Forest Acts, Criminal Tribes Act and Grazing Tax etc., the colonial rulers put so many hurdles in the way of the pastoralists. In order to survive, they had to adjust to the changing time and adopt certain methods. Some of them are following:
(i) Since the availability of pastures was limited, so some of the pastoralists reduced the number of cattle in their herds
(ii) Others tried to find or discover new pastures elsewhere.
(iii) Certain pastoralists, like the Raikas of Rajasthan, migrated to Haryana where their sheep could graze on agricultural fields after the harvest? Are cut formerly, before 1947, they used to migrate to Sind, but with the partition of the country, they could no longer go to Sind, which had become a part of Pakistan. Their herds provided the manure which the fields require afresh for new crops to grow.
(iv) Some pastoralists combined pastoral activity with some other activities like weaving blankets and trading. (Any three)
18. What were the views of the British officials about nomadic people? Mention two provisions of the Criminal Tribes Act.
(i) British were suspicious of nomadic people and distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages.
(ii) They distrusted pastoralists who changed their place of residence every season.
(iii) They wanted to rule over a settled population which was easy to identify and control.
1 Provisions of the Criminal Tribes Act:
(i) The Criminal Tribes Acts classified many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralist as criminal.
(ii) These communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements.
(iii) They were not allowed to move out without a permit.
(iv) The village police kept a continuous watch on them,
19. Under colonial rule, what were the changes in life of pastoralists?
(i) Their grazing grounds were reduced.
(ii) The revenue they had to pay was increased.
(iii) Their movement was regulated.
(iv) Their agricultural stock declined and their trade was badly affected
20. Who are the Gujjar Bakarwals and the Gaddis? What are the similarities between them?
Gujjar Bakarwals were shepherds of Jammu and Kashmir while the Gaddis were shepherds of Himachal.
(i) They both were herders of sheep and goats.
(ii) They both moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
(iii) They both spent the winter in the low hills of the Siwaliks. The scrub here provided fodder for their herds,
21. Why did the British introduce Waste Land Rules? How did they affect the pastoralists? Explain briefly.
Land revenue was the main source of finance of the Colonial State. To colonial officials all uncultivated land used by pastoralists for grazing their herds appeared to be ‘wasteland’ and unproductive: it neither yielded revenue nor agricultural produce.
By expanding cultivation revenue collection would increase so the Waste Land Rules were enacted where uncultivated land was taken over and given to select individuals to cultivate. The pastoralists lost actual grazing grounds and the decline of pasture land was a problem for them.
22. Give any four reasons to explain why the Massai Community lost their grazing lands.
The Massai community lost their grazing land due to following reasons:
(i) In the late 19th century, the Europeans imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa which led to slicing up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Massai land was cut into half with an international boundary between British, Kenya and German Tanganyika. The best grazing land were taken over for the white settlers.
(ii) The Massais were pushed into a small area. They were confined to an arid zone with uncertain rainfall and poor pastures.
(iii) Local peasant communities were encouraged by the British colonial government to expand cultivation and pasture lands were turned into cultivated fields.
(iv) Large areas of Massai grazing lands were converted into game reserves and pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves.
23. Why did the British introduce Waste Land Rules? How did they affect the Pastoralists?
The British wanted to transform all grazing land into cultivated farms to increase land revenue. The British officials believed that all uncultivated land was waste land and that needed to be brought under cultivation.
Uncultivated land was taken over and given to selective individuals. There individuals were given special powers.
Some of them were made headmen of villages.
This led to the decline of pastures.
24. Why did colonial state want to transform all grazing land into cultivable form?
(i) to increase Land Revenue
(ii) To control the pastoralist activities.
(iii) British officials were suspicious of nomadic people and considered them as criminal.
(iv) Govt, imposed tax on animals also.
25. How did the Forest Acts change the lives of Pastoralist? Give any four points.
(i) With the passing of these act they were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.
(ii) They needed a permit for entry.
(iii) The timings of their entry and departure were specified.
(iv) Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available, the grass was succulent and the undergrowth in the forest was ample.
26. How did the Grazing Tax implemented by the British to the Pastoralists during Mid-nineteenth century? Explain.
(i) Initially the right to collect grazing tax was given to the private contractors who tried to extract as high a tax as they could to recover the money they had paid to the state and earn as much profit as they could within the year, (ii) By the 1880’s the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists and each of them was given a pass.
To enter grazing tracts, a cattle herder had to show the pass and pay the tax.
The number of cattle he had and the amount of tax he paid was entered on the pass and the pastoralists were very much worried due to this tax as it proved to be an additional burden on them.
27. Give any four reasons to explain why the cattle stock of the massais decreased under colonial rule?
The cattle stock of the Massai’s decreased on account of the following reasons:
(i) Due to droughts the cattle were moved to areas where forage was available,
(ii) Under colonial rule the Massai’s were prohibited to moving in search of pastures and so they were cut off from the best grazing lands and were forced to live in the semi arid tracts prone to frequent droughts,
(iii) As they could not shift their cattle to secure places their cattle died in large numbers due to starvation and disease.
(iv) In 1933-1934 due to severe drought about half of the cattle reserves of the Massai’s died due to shrinkage of grazing ground and severe drought.
28. How did pastoral communities in India cope with the changes during colonial rule?
Pastoral Communities coped with the changes
(i) Reduced number cattle in their herds.
(ii) Discovered new Pastures.
(iii) Rich pastoralists bought land settle down, other took to extensive trading.
(iv) Poor pastoralists either borrowed money or became labour less.
29. Describe how new laws affect the life of pastoralists of Africa and how they react?
Due to new laws grazing land had shirked.
They reacted in the following manners:
(i) They search new occupation they band to collect forests products.
(ii) Changed the path of their annual movement.
(iii) Reduced their cattle number.
(iv) Press for right to enter new areas.
(v) Exert political pressure on the government for relief, subsidy and other forms of support.
(vi) Demand a right in forest management and water resources.
30. Who are Gujjar Bakarwalas and Gaddis? What are the similarities between them?
Gujjar Bakarwalar and Gaddi are pastoral community of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
(i) They both were herders of sheep and goats.
(ii) They both moved annually between their summer and winter grazing ground.
(iii)They both spent the winter in the low hills of the shivalik.
32. Who were the Massais? Give any three reasons to explain why they lost their grazing lands?
Maasais were a pastoral community of Africa. They lived primarily in Southern Kenya and Tanzania:
(i) Maasailand was divided by imperial powers.
(ii) To expand cultivation.
(iii) Grazing lands were turned into game reserves
33. How did the life of pastoralist’s changes under colonial rule? Explain.
Under the colonial rule, the life of pastoralists changed dramatically:
(i) Grazing grounds shrank as it was transformed into cultivated farms which meant the decline of pastures.
(ii) Forests Acts enacted, pastoralists were prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.
(iii) In 1871, the colonial government in India passed the Criminal Tribes Act by which many pastoral communities were classified as criminal tribes.
(iv) Taxes were imposed on land, on canal water, on salt, on trade goods and even on .animals. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.
34. Explain any four factors responsible for the annual movement of the Dhangars.
(i) They moved from central plateau of Maharashtra during October, November due to shortage of fodder.
(ii) They move to Konkan due to the availability of stubble
(iii) The locals of Konkan welcome them as the flocks of Dhangars provided manure to the fields.
(iv) They come back after onset of monsoon.
35. What were the Wasteland Rules? How did these rules affect the pastoralists? Give
Three points for each.
(1) Uncultivated land was taken over and given to select individuals.
(2) Pastoralists were encouraged to settle on these lands.
(3) All land was encouraged to be used for agricultural purposes.
Most of the land taken was pastures and thus pastoralist were banned, Effect on the pastoralist community:
1. Pastoralism declined.
2. Pastures and Grazing tracts shrank.
3. Their traditional rights were taken over as land became property of Imperialists.
4. They had to pay grazing tax
36. Why the colonial governments were acts anti-pastoralists? Give four reasons.
The colonial government acts anti-pastoralists:
(i) To bring more land under cultivation of commercial crops.
(ii) Agriculture was major source of revenue.
(iii) Grazing destroyed saplings and young shoots of the trees.
(iv) The British were suspicious of the nomadic people.
37. What factors were kept in mind by the pastoral communities before moving from? One place to another place?
(i) They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area and know where they could find water.
(ii) They needed to calculate their timing of movement.
(iii) They had to forge a relationship with farmers on the way
(iv) They also had to combine a range of facilities.
38. Explain the factors that the pastoralist had to consider to sustain their life.
(i) They had to judge when and where to move.
(ii) How long herds could stay in one place?
(iii) To know where they could find pastures and water.
(iv) They had to calculate the timings of their movement so that the forage is available for their herds.
(v) They had to make an estimate of the terrains they had to pass.
(vi) They had to establish good relations with those people which come on their way especially farmers who would allow them to graze their cattle. They had to combine different activities – like herding, cultivation, trading etc. for their survival
39. Explain the movement of pastoral nomads of India in the mountains.
Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir and Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh have great herds of sheep and goat. They move seasonally along with their animals and come to their original position. Lack of fodder and adverse climatic conditions are responsible for their movement.
In winter, the high mountains are covered with snow so they move to lower hills of shivalik range.
With the onset of summer, the snow melts and mountain sides are lush green with rich nutritious fodder.
By September they start their return journey. On their way they stop in the village to reap their summer harvest and sow their winter crop
40. Why are cyclical movements necessary for all the tribal communities? How it affects
Pastoral nomads are great herders of goat and sheep. Gujar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir migrated to this region in the nineteenth century in search of pastures for their animals. Gradually, over the decades, they established themselves in the area, and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds.
In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The dry scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.
Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as a kafila. They crossed the Pir Panjal passes and entered the valley of Kashmir. With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountain sides were lush green.
In a different area of the mountains, the Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh had a similar cycle of seasonal movement. They too spent their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their flocks in scrub forest.
By April they moved north and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. This pattern of cyclical movement between summer and winter pastures was typical of many pastoral communities of the Himalayas, including the Bhotiya, Sherpa’s and Kinnauris.
All of them had to adjust to seasonal changes and make effective use of available pastures in different places. When the pasture was exhausted or unusable in one place they moved their herds and flock to new areas. This continuous movement also allowed the pastures to recover; it prevented their overuse.”
41. Mention any three significant features of the National Population Policy, 2000.
(i) Imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
(ii) Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(iii)Promoting delayed marriage for girls and making family welfare a people centered programme.
(iv) Achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases,
42. Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981? Give any three reasons
(i) Family planning programmes.
(ii) Spread education among the people regarding delayed marriage for girls.
(iii)Literacy rate increased.
(iv) People understood the need for a small family.
43. Explain the main reasons for the rapid increase in India’s population since independence
(i) Sharp decline in death rate
(ii) Widespread poverty in rural India.
(iii) Early marriages.
44. Explain any three factors which are responsible for the change in the size of population
Describe the factors that cause changes in the size of population.
(i) Widening gap between the birth rate and death rate
Death has fallen because of good medical facilities.
Birth rate continues to be high.
45. What is the relationship between age composition and dependency ratio? Explain.
Children below 15 years are economically unproductive and old above 59 years do not get employment through recruitment. This affects the dependency ratio because these groups are not producers.
46. Mention any three objectives of National Population Policy
Provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age.
Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births
Achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases
47. What is meant by occupational structure? Explain the occupational structure of India.
The distribution of population according to different types of occupations is referred to as Occupational Structure.
(i) In India 64% of population is engaged in Agriculture, 13% is in secondary sector and 20% is in tertiary sector.
(ii) Shift in favor of Secondary and tertiary sector.
48. Categorize the population of a nation into three broad categories on the basis of Age composition and explain it.
The population of nation can be categorized as:
(i) Children (generally below 15 years):
They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.
(ii) Working age (15 to 59 years):
They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population.
(iii) Aged (above 59 Years):
They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment.
49. What is migration? Mention the types of migration and their effects on population growth
Movement of people across regions and territories
Within country, does not change size of population
International migration: Between countries; changes the size and distribution of population.
50. Explain any three elements which are responsible for population growth.
(i) Birth rate:
Birth rate is major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates.
(ii) Death rate:
Due to improved health facilities, death rate has been declining in India. High birth rates and declining death rates in 1980 resulted in higher rate of population growth. Since 1981, birth rates have also started declining gradually, resulting in gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
Migration is the third element of population growth. International migration changes the size of the population. Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration changes the size of population of rural and urban areas.
51. Explain the three categories of occupations in India with examples.
(i) Primary Sector:
Primary sector include agriculture, forestry, animal rearing, fishing, poultry farming and mining. These activities produce food products, fibers, timber, fuel and minerals etc. from natural resources.
(ii) Secondary Sector:
Secondary sector includes quarrying and manufacturing. Primary products are processed by manufacturing industries into finished products. This sector adds value to the primary products. For example, cotton textiles produce yarn and cloth from cotton; sugar mills manufacture sugar from sugarcane and manufacturing of iron and steel from coal and iron.
Tertiary sector includes a wide range of personal and professional services. These activities are in the field of education, health, trade, transport, banking, communication and administration, etc. They meet basic needs of the community in towns and villages. These activities add value to the national income.
52. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
(i) Good health increases economic efficiency.
(ii) It improves the quality of human resources. Economic development depends upon the quality, capacity and ability of the people.
(iii) Good health increases the life expectancy at birth.
(iv) It reduces mortality rate.
(v) It contributes towards favorable sex ratio
53. When was National Population Parlay implemented? Give its significant features.
National population policy was implemented in the year 2000. Its main features are:-
(i) It is providing a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age.
(ii) Its aim at reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
(iii) Its objective is to achieve universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
(iv) It promotes delayed marriage for girls.
(v) It makes family welfare a people centered program by improving individual health.
54. Census is primarily concerned with which three main questions about the population?
The three main questions census is primarily concerned with:
(i) Population size and distribution
(ii) Population growth and processes of population change.
(iii) Characteristics or qualities of the population.
55. Describe the three population density zones of India.
The three population density zones of India:
(i) High density zone – Northern plains, above 500 people per s km.
(ii) Low density zone – Mountain region, 250-500 people per s km.
(iii) Medium density zone – Plateau region, below 250 people per s km.
56. What are the two types of migration? How migration is considered an important determinant of population change?
Internal and international migration
(i) It changes the population size and the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.
(ii) International migration definitely increases or decreases the size of the population.
57. What is National Population Policy (NPP)? Why has NPP Initiated by the government?
NPP 2000 is a culmination of year of planned efforts. The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age and other aims are as follows:
The family welfare program
Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 100 live births
Achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls and making family welfare a people centre programme.
58. What is sex ratio? Give two reasons responsible for unfavorable sex ratio in India?
The number of women in 1901 the ratio between the male and female population was 1000:972 but it dropped to 1000:929 in 1991. However, in the last decade, it has shown a little increase in ratio from 929 female per 1000 male to 922 female per 1000 male in 2001.
(i) Lesser care of female children.
(ii) Greater risk to their lives especially at the time of child birth.
(iii) Women are also killed or forced to die by the dowry seekers.
(iv) Due to illiteracy.
(v) Lack of medical facilities for women etc. per thousand men is called sex ratio.
59. What is the significance of age composition of population? Mention any three.
(i) It means distribution of population age groups.
(ii) Only about 59 percent of the total population is in the working age groups.
(iii) About 41 percent of the total population consists of dependants.
60. Explain the three main processes of population change.
Three main processes of population change are:
(i) Birth rate – Number of live birth per thousands in a year.
(ii) Death rate – Number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
(iii) Migration – Movement of people across regions and territories.
61. There has been a significant increase in the number of ‘million plus cities’ in India in the decade of the 1990s. Give three reasons why?
(i) Internal migration has played a significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population in India.
(ii) In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas.
(iii) The ‘pull’ factor of the city is seen as increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.
(iv) The rural urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the population in cities and there is a significant increase from 23 to 35 in the number of million plus cities in the decade of 1991-2001.
(iii) Educating adolescents about risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable.
(iv) Providing food supplements, nutritional services.
62. Give one health problem which if common among adolescent girls. Explain the needs of adolescents which the National Population Policy 2000 focuses on. Anemia is common.
(i) Protection from unwanted pregnancies.
(ii) Encouraging delayed marriage and child bearing.
63. What is meant by population growth? Explain the two ways in which it is expressed?
Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time e.g. last ten years
(i) It can be expressed as absolute numbers. Absolute numbers added each year or the decade is the magnitude of increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population (e.g. 1991) from the later population (e.g. 2001). The difference is the absolute increase.
Percentage change per year:
(ii) The rate or pace of the population increase in studied in percent per annum eg and increase of 2% per annum means there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is the annual growth rate.
64. What is a census? Why is it important for a country to conduct a census periodically?
A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India it is carried out every ten years.
It is important because:
(i) Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources.
(ii) It is important for a country to know how many people there are in the country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics. A census provides all this information.
65. Mention any three changes brought about in the game of cricket by the MCC’s revision of the laws during the second half of the 18th century.
The changes brought in the game of cricket by the MCC’s revision of laws during the second half of the 18th century were:
(i) It became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground.
(ii) It also opened new possibilities for spin and swing.
(iii) The curved bat was replaced with the straight one. All this raised the premium on skill and reduced the influence of rough ground and brute force.
66. Why did Mahatma Gandhi condemn the pent angular cricket tournament?
(i) Mahatma Gandhi, condemned the pent angular cricket tournament, as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time when nationalists were trying to unite India’s diverse population
(ii) The colonial state and its divisive conception of India was the rock on which the Pent angular was built.
(iii) It was a colonial tournament and it died with it.
67. Mention any three changes introduced in the game of cricket during the 19th century.
(i) The rule about wide ball and exact circumference of the ball was specified.
(ii) Protective equipments like pad and gloves were introduced.
(iii) Boundaries were introduced where previously all shorts had to be run.
(iv) Over arm bowling became legal.
68. Which was the first Indian Community to start playing Cricket? How did they contribute to the Cricket?
(A) The Parsis (Zorflastrians)
(B) The Parsis founded the first Indian Cricket Club
(C) They built their own gymkhana in Bombay.
69. Mention the first has written ‘Laws of Cricket’ drawn up in 1744.
(i) the principals shall choose from amongst the gentleman present two umpires, who shall absolutely decide all disputes.
(ii) Stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches.
(iii) Balls must be between 5 to 6 ounces.
70. “The battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton” Explain the statement.
(i) Britain’s Military success was based on the values taught to school boys in its Public Schools.
(ii) Eton was the most famous of these schools.
(iii) The school trained English boys for careers in military, civil service and the church.
71. Why Cricket become popular in India and West Indies? Why it did not become popular in countries in South America?
(i) Cricket was a colonial game.
(ii) Took roots in countries that the British conquered and ruled.
(iii) In India and West Indies cricket was established either by white settlers or local elites who wanted to copy the habits of their colonial masters.
(iv) South American Countries did not accept the English Culture.
72. How the centre of gravity in cricket was shifted from the old, Anglo-Australian axis?
(i) in recent years the innovations in cricket technique have mainly come from the practice of Sub-continental team in countries like India and Pakistan.
(ii) Pakistan has pioneered two advances in bowling: the doosra and reverse swing.
(iii) Both innovations were greeted with great suspicion by Britain and Australia. In time it came to be accepted that the law so cricket could not continue to be framed for British or Australian conditions of play and become part of the technique of all bowlers everywhere in the world.
73. What was Pentagular Tournament? Why did Gandhiji condemn it?
Pentangular Tournament was played by five teams – The Europeans, the Parsis, the Hindus, the Muslim and the Rest, which comprised all the leftover communities such as the Indian Christi
Gandhiji strongly condemned the Pentangular as a communally divisive competition that was out of place in a time with nationalists was trying to unite India’s diverse population.
74. Explain why cricket became popular in India and the West Indies?
Cricket became popular in India and West Indies because:
(i) Both India and West Indies were a part of British colonial empire.
(ii) The game was made popular by the white settlers and the local elites.
(iii) In both these countries cricket was looked upon as a sign of superior social and racial status.
(iv) In both these countries cricket was a successful sport and became a measure of social equality and political progress
75. Explain why cricket became popular in the colonies? Give suitable examples.
Cricket became popular as
(i) Local elites emulated their local masters.
(ii) In West Indies success at cricket became a measure of racial and political progress.
(iii) Many political leaders of West Indies saw in cricket a chance of attaining self respect and international standing.
76. What innovations did Karry Packer introduce which changed the nature of the game of Cricket?
Karry Packer made many innovations:
(i) He signed up 51 of world’s leading cricketers and staged unofficial tests and one day Internationals under the name of World Series Cricket.
(ii) He introduced coloured dress, protective helmets, and field restrictions of cricket under light.
(iii) Made cricket a commercial marketable sports which could earn huge revenues through live television coverage and product endorsements by celebrity cricketers.
77. Explain any three differences between Amateurs and Professionals.
Differences between Amateurs and Professionals:
(i) The rich English gentleman who plays cricket for pleasure was called amateurs while the poor who played it for living were called Professionals / Players.
(ii) Amateurs were batsman while Professionals were fast bowlers.
(iii) Captain of the team always an amateur / Batsman. Amateurs and professionals entered from different entrances.
78. Describe the first written laws of cricket.
Written Laws of Cricket were:
(i) Two Umpires to be chosen.
(ii) Height of stumps to be 22 inches and bail 6 inched, no limit on shape and size of bat.
(iii) Weight of ball must be b/w 5 to 6 ounces and two sets of stumps must be 22 yards apart.
79. How is Test Cricket unique and different from other team games?
Uniqueness and peculiarities of the Test Cricket and its difference from other team games:
(i) This is a game which can go on for 5 days and still end in a draw. No other game goes on for such a long time.
(ii) Secondly, the pitch of the game of cricket is specified which is fixed at 22 yards but the shape and size of the ground is not specified. But in most other team games the dimensions of the playing area are clearly laid down. Some cricket stadiums are quite long while others are somewhat smaller.
(iii) Cricket was perhaps the earliest team sport where rules and regulations codified much before other team games like hockey and soccer.
80. Who was Kerry Packer? What innovations did Kerry Packer introduce which changed the nature of the game?
Australian TV tycoon signed 51 of world’s leading cricketers and staged unofficial tests and one-day internationals under the name World Series Cricket.
(i) Introduced coloured dress, helmets etc.
(ii) Make cricket a marketable game. Continuous TV coverage Celebrities’ earning money on commercials
81. Mention any three significant roles of cricket in establishing peace and harmony.
(i) When the West Indies won its first test series against England in 1950, it was celebrated as a national achievement as a way of demonstrating that West Indians were equal to White Englishmen
(ii) The two ironies of this great victory
(a) West Indies team that won was captained by a white player
(b) West Indies team that won represented not one nation but several dominions, that later became independent countries.
82. Mention three ways in which media contribute in making cricket a global game.
(i) Television coverage made the game of cricket quite popular.
(ii) As a result of television coverage, the different cricket boards become quite rich by selling television rights to different companies.
(iii) Continuous television coverage made cricketers great celebrities who began to earn a lot of money by advertisements.
83. When was the ‘Law of Cricket1 drawn up? What was stated in the written laws of cricket?
The laws of cricket were drawn up in 1744:
(i) According to it two umpires would be chosen from among the gentlemen to settle disputes.
(ii) The height of the stumps must be 22? and bail across them was to be six inches.
(iii) The weight of the ball must be between 5 to 6 ounces and two sets of stumps will be 22 yards apart.
(iv) No limits were placed on the shape or size of the bat.
84. “The British used cricket to carry out their racial policy in their colonies.” Explain by giving any three reasons.
(i) Playing cricket was considered a sign of superior social and racial status.
(ii) Cricket in colonial India was organized on the principal of race and religion. The first non- white club in West Indies was established towards the end of the 19th century and even in this case, its members were light skinned mulattos.
(iii) Afro – Caribbean clubs were discouraged from participating in organized club cricket.
(iv) England and the other white commonwealth countries, Australia and New Zealand, continued to play test cricket with South Africa, a racist state that practiced a policy of racial segregation which among other things, barred the non white (who made up the majority of South Africa’s population) from representing that country in test matches.
85. ‘Test cricket is a unique game in many ways.” Justify the statement by giving any three peculiarities of test cricket.
Peculiarities of test cricket:
(a) No specification regarding the size or shape of the ground.
(b) A match can go on for five days and still end in a draw.
(c) There were no limits on the shape or size of the bat.
86. “In the matter of protective equipment, cricket has been influenced by technological change.” State three reasons to justify the statement
(i) The invention of vulcanized rubber led to the introduction of pads in 1848.
(ii) Protective gloves were also introduced made of same material.
(iv) Helmets were introduced made out of metal and synthetic light weight materials.
87. “MCC revision of Laws brought in a series of changes in cricket in the second half of the eighteenth century.” Justify the statement giving three points.
MCC revision of laws:
(i) Over arm bowling
(ii) Spin and swing in bowling
(iii) Width of bat four inches
(v) Bowl weight 5/2 to 5/2 ounces.
88. ‘The nineteenth century saw some important changes in the game of cricket. ‘Explain with three suitable points.
The important changes in cricket in nineteenth century:
(i) The rule about wide ball was applied.
(ii) The exact circumference of the ball was specified.
(iii) Protective equipments like pads and gloves
(iv) Boundaries were introduced
89. The organization of the cricket in Victorian England reflected the nature of English Society. Justify in three points.
The organization of the cricket in Victorian England reflected the nature of English Society.
(i) The players were divided into two groups: Amateurs and Professionals.
(ii) Professional played for money and Amateurs for pleasure.
(iii) Mateurs were rich and professionals were poor.
(iv) Amateurs were captain and batsman, professionals were fielders and bowlers
90. The Parsis were the first Indian cricket community to set up a cricket club in India. Give three reasons why?
The Parsis were the first Indian cricket community to set up a cricket club in India because:
(i) The Parsis were the first community to westernize.
(ii) They had trade links with the English.
(iii) The white cricket elite offered no help to Parsis
(iv) The colonial authorities were prejudiced in favor of white cricketers
91. Who was Kerry Packer? Why is his name famous in the history of cricket?
Kerry Packer was an Australian television tycoon. He saw the money making potential of cricket as a televised sport.
He introduced World Series Cricket. He signed up 51 of world’s leading cricketers against the wishes of national cricket board and for about 2 years staged one day international and test matches. The innovation he used to make cricket more attractive to television audiences endure and change the nature of the game.
Coloured dress, protected helmets, field restrictions cricket under light became a standard part of Post-Packer game.
Packer drove home the lesson that cricket was a marketable game which could generate huge revenues.
92. “Cricket has changed with changing times and yet fundamentally remained true to its origin in rural England”. Justify by giving examples.
(i) Cricket’s most important tools are all made of natural, pre-industrial materials i.e. the bat, stumps and bail are made of wood and ball is made of leather, cork and twine.
(ii) Even today bat and ball are handmade and not industrially manufactured.
(iii) Though the material of the bat is slightly changed but manmade material like plastic fibre and glass are not used.
93. Write the name of four protective items. How do they protect a cricketer from preventable injury?
Protective equipment is as follows:
(i) pads made of vulcanized rubber
(ii) Protective gloves
(iii) Helmets made out of metal and synthetic lightweight materials.
(iv) Thigh Pads
These protective equipments help a great deal in reducing chances of injuries likely to affect the players.
94. How have advances in technology affected the development in contemporary cricket?
Television coverage changed cricket. It expanded the audience for the game by beaming cricket into small towns and villages. It also broadened cricket’s social base.
Children who had never previously had the chance to watch international cricket because they lived outside the big cities, where top-level cricket was played, could now watch and learn by imitating their heroes. The technology of satellite television and the world wide reach of multinational television companies created a global market for cricket.
Matches in Sydney could now be watched live in Surat. This simple fact shifted the balance of power in cricket: a process that had been begun by the break-up of the British Empire was taken to its logical conclusion by globalisation.
This shift was symbolized by the shifting of the ICC headquarters from London to tax-free Dubai. Innovations in cricket technique in recent years have mainly come from the practice of sub-continental team in countries like India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
95. ‘Cricket in colonial India was organized on the principle of race and religion’. Justify the statement with three instances.
(i) The first Indian cricket club, the Calcutta Cricket Club was established in 1792. This was all British club and Indians were not allowed.
(ii) The first Indian cricket club was established by the Parsis. But the British did nothing to help the cricket enthusiasts.
(iii) Ranji Trophy was earlier called Quadrangular and was played by four teams – Hindus, Muslim, Europeans and Parsis.
96. Describe the changes that occurred in the game of cricket after it became a televised sport.
(i) Coloured dress, protective helmet, field, restrictions, cricket under lights became a standard part.
(ii) Expanded audience
(iii) Broadened cricket’ social base.
(iv) Commercialization of cricket.
97. Differentiate between the cold weather season and the hot weather season of India by explaining two distinctive features of each.
Cold Weather Season:
(i) It begins from mid November in north India and stays till February.
(ii) The temperature decreases from South to North.
(iii) Days are warm and nights are cold.
Hot Weather Season:
(i) It begins from March to May.
(ii) Experience rising temperature and falling air pressure in North India.
(iii) Hot, dry wind called ‘Loo’ blow during the day.
98. “India has diverse climatic conditions”. Explain by giving two examples each of temperature and precipitation.
(i) In May temperature of 45° Celsius is common in North western parts of India.
(ii) In December and January the temperature decreases from south to north e.g., Chennai 25°C and in Northern plains 10°C.
(i) June, July wind ward side of Western Ghats receive very heavy rainfall.
(iii) Mawsynram receives the highest average rainfall in the world.
(iii) Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall.
99. Explain why the distribution of rainfall in India is uneven?
(i) Monsoon rains are confined only to few months of a year.
(ii) The topography of India leads to more rainfall in some region while less in others.
(iii) Cyclones help rain scatter at places, while other places remain without rain.
(iv) Whole of India does not receive rain by monsoon winds. Eastern Coast of India gets rain only from north-east monsoons during the month of Dec-Jan.
100. Describe regional variations in climate with suitable examples from India.
(i) Variation in temperature:
Rajasthan, Pahalgam, Drass can be compared.
(ii) Variation in precipitation:
Rainfall in all part and snowfall in upper regions of Himalayas.
(iii) Variation in rainfall:
Regions with heavy rainfall to regions with low rainfall.
(iv) Variation in climate:
Coastal regions have equable climate in comparisons to extreme climate in interior parts.
101. Define Burst of monsoons. Give an account of the climatic conditions of the cold weather season in India.
Burst of Monsoons:
When monsoons arrive in India, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continue constantly for several days. This is called burst of monsoons.
(i) Cold weather season – Nov – Feb.
(ii) The temperature decreases from South to North.
(iii) Days are warm and nights are cold.
(iv) North-east trade winds prevail over the country.
(v) The weather is marked by clear sky low temperature, low humidity and feeble, variable winds.
(vi) Low pressure system of Mediterranean Sea move into India and cause rainfall over the plains and snowfall in the mountains,
102. Describe the four main features of Hot Weather Season.
(i) Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward. As such from March to May, it is hot weather season in India.
(ii) In March highest temperature is about 38°C on the Deccan Plateau in April, Gujarat and M.P. receives around 42°C, in May temperature is 45°C is common in the north-west part of country.
(iii) In May an elongated low pressure area develops in the regions extending from the Thar Desert in the north-west to Patna and Chhota Nagpur plateau.
(iv) A striking feature of the hot weather season is the Loo. These are strong hot dusty winds blowing during the day-over the North and North Western India.
103. What are monsoons? Give any three characteristics of Indian monsoons.
Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year derived from the word ‘Mausim’s’ meaning season. Characteristics of Indian monsoons
(i) They are not steady winds but pulsating in nature. They vary from year to year.
(ii) They have tendency to have breaks in rainfall. It has wet and dry spells. They take place only for a few days at a time.
(iii) The monsoons are known for their uncertainties. They are often irregular in their arrival and retreat.
(iv) The monsoons are unevenly distributed. They may cause floods in one part and may be responsible for droughts in the other.
104. Give an account of the weather conditions and characteristics of the cold weather season.
(i) Sets in mid-November in North India and stays till February.
(ii) Temperature decreases from south-north.
(iii) North East trades blow-most part of the country is dry.
(iv) Weather is fine with clear sky, low temperature, and low humidity.
(v) Chennai coast and Punjab-Haryana gets rainfall.
105. Explain the chief characteristics of cold weather season in India.
Chief Characteristics of cold weather season in India:
(i) Temperature decreases from South to North.
(ii) The Northern plains of India have cold winter and experience cold wave. Day is warm and nights are cold.
(iii) The peninsular India has no well-defying winter season.
(iv) The cold north-east trade winds prevail over the country.
(v) It is generally cool, dry, fine weather with clear skies, low humidity and bright sunshine.
106. How is the Arabian Sea branch of South-West monsoons responsible for good rainfall in Northern plains of India? Why doesn’t it give rain in Central Peninsula?
(i) The part of South-West monsoons which blow over Arabian sea is responsible for high rainfall on the western coast of India, (ii) These winds enter through Saurashtra and enter northern plains. These winds strike the Himalayas and give fairly good rainfall and they have abandoned moisture.
(i) South-West monsoons are perpendicular to the direction of Western Ghats thus they give heavy rainfall on the wind world side of the Western Ghats
(ii) Central peninsula lies on the leeward side of the Western Ghats. This Arabian Sea branch of south-west monsoon does not reach the region.
107. Describe the four factors responsible for climatic condition.
The temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles. Places located on low latitudes are hotter than the places on higher latitudes. Solar energy is more in lower latitudes.
At higher altitudes the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. Hills are cooler during summers, e.g., Shimla is cooler than Delhi.
(iii) Distance from ocean:
Sea has moderating influence on the climate. As the distance from the ocean increases, its moderating influence decreases and extreme weather conditions are experienced, i.e., very hot in summer and very cold in winter.
(iv) Ocean currents:
Ocean currents along with onshore winds affect the climate of the coastal regions. Any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it will be cooled or warmed if the winds are onshore.
108. What do you mean by ‘transitional season’? Explain the term ‘October Heat’ which is experienced by Indians during this season.
Season of retreating monsoon :
(i) Moist ground
(ii) Clear sky
(iii) Rise in temperature
(iv) High temperature and humidity
(v) Second half of October.
109. Describe the mechanism of monsoon.
Mechanism of Monsoon:
(i) The different rates of heating and cooling of land and water – End of May, due to high temperature of land and low pressure is created while seas around experience low temperature and high pressure.
(ii) The shift of the position of inter tropical zone over Ganga plain
(iii) The presence of high pressure area over the Indian Ocean affects the Indian monsoon.
(iv) The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of Himalayas and the presence of easterly jet streams over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
110. Define ‘Kaal Baishakhi’ and ‘Loo’. In which parts of India are they experienced?
(i) Strong dusty, hot, dry winds during mid-day
(ii) Sometimes experienced in the evening.
(iii) In many cases fatal, brings temporary relief.
(iv) Associated with thunderstorms and hails.
‘Kaal Baishakhi’: Eastern Part, while ‘Loo’: Western Part.