A new major port at Nhava Sheva called Jawaharlal constructed off Mumbai coast, cost Rs. 506 crores. It has three fully mechanised container berths. The quantum of traffic dealt with at these ports is sizeable. Iron ore constitutes the main item of export from Vizag, Marmugao and Mangalore.

Gujarat’s Minor Ports:

Okha, Porbandar, and Bhavnagar. Okha occupies a very good position at the extreme north-east point of the Kathiawar Peninsula.

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It competes sometimes with Mumbai by offering lower port charges. The imports are textile machinery, foodgrains, crude oil, fertilizers and chemicals. The exports are oilseeds, common salt and cotton textiles.


The Government of India has developed Kandla a small port of minor importance into a major port to make good the loss of Karachi. A new township Gandhidham has sprung up.

A railway line links Delhi with Kandla. In order to develop this port, an industrial complex has been established at Kandla. A free-trade zone has been established to promote export-oriented industries.

Mumbai (Bombay):

It lies at the base of the Western Ghats.

It has a natural harbour just on the sea. The hinterland of Mumbai extends from Andhra Pradesh and the western part of Tamil Nadu in the South to Delhi in the North and includes Western U.P., Eastern Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Central India and Maharashtra. The important exports are cotton textiles, light engineering goods and tobacco. Mumbai is becoming a major petrochemical centre with the discovery of oil and gas in the Bombay High region. A second port has been developed off the main island, it is called Jawahar port and the main purpose is to reduce congestion in the main Mumbai port.


It has been developed as a major port, mainly to facilitate the export of iron ore from the Kudremukh mines of Karnataka.

Mangalore is also being developed industrially, an oil refinery and a fertilser plant have added to the importance of the port.


The port in Goa, is a natural harbour, exports manganese, iron ore and cashew nuts, Cochin:

It is a major port on the Malabar coast of India, 975 km south of Mumbai. It serves southern India. Its chief exports are coir, coir mats and matting’s, copra, coconut oil, cashew nuts, tea, coffee and rubber.

Another shipyard with the help of Japan has been established here.

An oil refinery has been set up under the public sector. Cochin is also emerging as an important port for the export of sea-food to U.S.A., Japan and other countries. Ports on the Eastern Coast:


Important port of Tamil Nadu. It is situated at extreme south-eastern point of the Penin­sula. The harbour is shallow and constant dredging is necessary.

Tuticorin has now been developed into a major port. The importance of the port has increased with the installation of the fertiliser project. Cotton, cement, tea, sennal leaves and cardamom are the principal exports. A heavy water plant has been set up here.


The fourth largest city in India is the chief port of Tamil Nadu. It is connected by several railway lines with Mumbai, Tuticorin, Kozhikode, Kolkata and Delhi. Its hinterland is vast. Its harbour is artificial.

The imports are chemicals, iron and steel, machinery, dyes, fertilisers, paper, petroleum. The chief exports are iron ore, leather products, oilseeds, coffee, tobacco, fish and cotton textiles.


It is situated on the Coromandel Coast. It has been developed as a major port and a huge dockyard has been constructed here. Manganese, groundnuts, iron ore, hides and skins are the chief exports; fertilisers, chemicals and heavy machinery are the important imports. It is also the centre of ship-building industry. An oil refinery, a heavy plate plant and a fertilizer factory have already been set up. It exports large quantities of iron ore to Japan.

A major steel plant with the Soviet technical cooperation was set up during the Seventh Five-Year-Plan at an investment of over Rs. 3500 crores. Discov­ery of large deposits of natural gas in close proximity by Reliance will augment its importance.


The largest city in India is situated on the left bank of the Hoogly river. It is a port for the Gangetic plain. It was once the greatest trading centre east of the Suez Canal. Its hinterland comprises Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Haryana.

It has jute mills, paper mills, engineering works etc. Kolkata is the biggest jute centre of the world. Other important industries are rice mills, cotton mills, tanneries, perfumeries, iron and steel works. The chief exports are jute, tea, mica, coal, iron ore, manganese and shellac. The chief imports are iron and steel goods, petroleum, paper, chemicals, salt and rubber.

Paradeep (Orissa):

It is situated in the Bay of Bengal about 100 km from Cuttack. It has been developed into a major port primarily for the export of mineral wealth of Orissa.

Major exportable items are iron ore, coal and manganese.

Haldia (West Bengal):

The development of Haldia port had assumed a certain amount of urgency on account of the continuous congestion at Kolkata. Haldia has made it possible for West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Assam and U.P.

to participate more actively in the export programme. An oil refinery and a fertiliser plant have been set up at Haldia. A petrochemical complex has been established with the house of Tatas and West Bengal government being the joint promoters.